Spanish Sausages Overview
In aged times, about 3000 B.C., meat was already preserved in Egypt with salt. The action was simple: meat was broken thin, absolute and broiled in air. With time we abstruse the account of smoking, cerebration it preserved the meat, although it was the dehydration that able the task. The smoke played an important allotment in the action by inhibiting advance of bacteria, befitting insects at bay and accouterment a able-bodied admired flavor.
The oldest anytime advertence to a sausage mentioned in accounting abstract comes from Homer’s Adventure accounting in the ninth aeon B.C., book XX, ballad 25:
“And as a man with a abdomen pudding, that has been abounding with claret and fat, tosses it aback and alternating over a afire fire, and the pudding itself strains adamantine to be adapted quickly; so he was agee and axis aback and forth, apperception how, admitting he was abandoned adjoin many, he could lay easily on the abandoned suitors.”
The aloft is the aboriginal accounting almanac of the broiled sausage. In the aboriginal aeon A.C., Italian columnist Marcus Gavius Apicius mentions “botellus” (small sausage) in his acclaimed assignment “De re coquinaria” (On the Accountable of Cooking) which abounding sources articulation to Spanish botelo or botillo del Bierzo. Added sources accord acclaim to Spanish monks from Monasterio de Carracedo as they acknowledgment “botellus” in their writings in the Average Ages.
Of best acceptation was an bearding cookbook accounting in XIII aeon Andalusia aloof afore the baron Don Fernando III absolved Spain from Morrocan Arabs who bedeviled the Iberian Peninsula from 1147 to 1269. The book was alleged Spanish-Arabic Cuisine (La cocina hispano-magrebí) and included an absolute allotment committed to meat recipes: sausages, meat balls, alarmist spreads, arena meats and acceptance of spices. In 1324 appeared The Book of Beatific Sovi (Libro de Beatific Soví); the oldest actual comestible argument in Catalan. This actual applied book independent sections about seafood, banty and agrarian bold amid added topics. XV aeon is the point back home sausage authoritative takes off on a admirable scale. Beasts are developed for milk and meat, but they augment on affirmation out of sight. They are collapsed in annihilation houses and commercially distributed.
Pigs, however, feel adequate and safe with bodies so they are abutting by. Alike during wars back citizenry of villages ran abroad to adumbrate in a forest, the pigs did the aforementioned area they were able to augment themselves after any help. Back the bearings normalized, the pigs would acknowledgment to the village.
In the winter time, usually about Christmas a pig would be collapsed which was a affectionate of bounded anniversary accepted as “la matanza” (the slaughter). It was a amusing accident area families and neighbors alternate calm administration duties, tasks and knowledge. This fiesta would go for a few canicule area a accomplished pig was adapted into a array of articles afterward simple germ-free rules.
Parts that blemish aboriginal like claret and bits meat (liver, heart, kidney, spleen, lungs, bankrupt entrails) would be candy on the aboriginal day into claret and alarmist sausages. Added meat trimmings and fat would be fabricated into sausages and blue-blooded genitalia such as hams, loins and pork abdomen would be absolute and preserved for later.
Christopher Columbus’ analysis of America in 1492 opened the aperture to a countless of foods ahead alien in Spain: peppers, potatoes and new spices like allspice from Jamaica. The best important for sausage assembly was pepper which grew absolutely able-bodied on Spanish clay and in time became the “pimentón” which is an complete charge accept additive for chorizos, sobrasadas and added Spanish sausages giving them appropriate blush and flavor. Sausages became accepted not alone with villagers but with ability as well:
King Carlos IV, nicknamed “the hunter” due to his adulation for the action displayed abundant affection for sausages which has been immortalized in the afterward story. On one of his hunting trips in the mountains of Salamanca province, the baron became athirst and apparent that his bag did not accommodate any provisions. Again by a achievement of luck in the apple of Candelario, he encountered a barbarian called Uncle Rico (Tio Rico) who was accustomed a array of sausages to bear them to town. The baron begin them adorable and started to absorb them one by one. With his ache gone and actuality in a acceptable affection the baron accepted the barbarian permission to be the official supplier of sausages to the palace. The adventure is depicted in a acclaimed painting by Ramón Bayeu “Choricero de Candelario” (sausage maker from Candelario) which is displayed in Prado Building in Madrid.
Spanish baron Alfonso XII (1874-1885) was so addicted of salchichón de Vic that he consistently had this sausage in his kitchen.
Geographical Area and Altitude Conditions
The acceptable sausage authoritative action was abundantly afflicted by the area of the accomplishment facility. Breadth and acclivity ascendancy temperature. Adjacency to sea, rivers and lakes affect humidity. Mountains accept access on temperature and wind, the time of the year affects attention of the product. All those factors played a acute allotment in home production. Today we can ascendancy ambit such as temperature, humidity, air acceleration or smoke temperature in computer-controlled chambers, but in the past, we had to assignment with mother attributes together. Alike so, the above-mentioned accessories due to its cost, is acclimated by bartering producers and not by a archetypal hobbyist.
Spain is not a huge country, about 500 km in breadth and 1000 km at its widest point. With Portugal on the left, best of Spain is additionally about 500 km wide. Eastern Spain faces the Mediterranean Sea, north-western Atlantic Bay of Biscay and arctic Spain shares Pyrenees Mountains with France. There are not abounding lakes or rivers. All-embracing the country is adored with able altitude for dehydration due to balmy temperatures and connected prevailing winds. In arctic genitalia temperatures can bead actual low, but that is adapted by abating the dehydration accommodation with slow-burning wood. Addition band-aid was blind sausages aloft a wood-fired kitchen stove or affective them to a altered area.
There are 17 free regions in Spain and anniversary one produces meats and sausages: Andalusia, Aragon, Asturias, Balearic Islands, Basque Country, Bare Islands, Cantabria, Castile-La Mancha, Castile-Leon, Catalonia, Extremadura, Galicia, La Rioja, Madrid, Arena de Murcia, Navarre and Arena de Valencia.
Taking beneath application a concrete area area sausages are made, we can generalize sausages into two groups:
1. Sausages fabricated in the eastern arena of Iberian Peninsula, basically the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Starting from top: the arctic Catalonia (Barcelona, Girona), Valencia (Alicante, Castellon, Valencia), southern Aragon (Teruel), Murcia (Cartagena, Murcia), the eastern allotment of Castile-La Mancha (Albacete and Cuenca), eastern Andalusia (Almería, Granada and Jaén), and Balearic Islands (Majorca, Minorca, Ibiza).
A little use of pimentón and alternative for adapted sausages are the factors that analyze this area, additionally accepted as “Levante,” from added regions in Spain. In this breadth pimentón is hardly added, except for the Balearic Islands whose acclaimed “sobrasada” consistently includes a ample dosage of it.
There are not accepted chorizos that arise from the Levante breadth of Spain. Catalonia is accepted not alone for its adapted butifarras, but for some of the greatest dry sausages as well: Salchichón de Vic, fuet, and secallona.
2. Sausages fabricated in added regions: Extremadura, Castilla La Mancha, Castile-León, Association of Madrid, Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria, País Vasco, La Rioja, Navarra, and Arragón are fabricated with or after pimentón and are usually uncooked.
Morcillas (blood sausages) are adapted and fabricated everywhere. There is a baby cardinal of dry morcillas: Asturiana, Serrana, de Badajoz, de Calabaza, de Despojos. This break the affable aphorism and makes them absolutely unique.
Naming Spanish Sausages
Anybody audition the name bologna can anticipate this blazon of sausage and best bodies audition the chat chorizo apperceive it is a Spanish sausage. However, the apple of sausages becomes ambagious back we see descriptions such as embutido, salchichόn, salchicha, longaniza, longanissa, morcilla, morcilla negra, morcilla blanca, botelo, butelo, butifarra, botifarra, botagueña, morcόn, chorizo blanco, sobrasada, lomo embuchado and others.
The sausage name usually starts with the sausage blazon and is followed with the name of the arena area the artefact was made. Examples of morcilla:
- Morcilla Asturiana – denotes a claret sausage from Asturias.
- Morcilla Extremeńa – claret sausage from Extremadura.
- Morcilla Toledana – claret sausage from Toledo (Toledo is the burghal in the arena of Toledo, Castile - La Mancha region.
- Morcilla Gallega – claret sausage from Galicia.
- Morcilla Riojana – claret sausage from La Rioja.
- Morcilla Riojana de Arroz - claret sausage with rice from La Rioja.
- Morcilla Dulce Riojana - candied claret sausage from La Rioja.
- Morcilla Dulce Canaria - candied claret sausage from Bare Islands.
- Morcilla de Cebolla de León - claret sausage with onions from León.
- Morcilla de Cebolla Valenciana - claret sausage with onions from Valencia.
Spanish sausage names on our website accept been larboard in original, but the English agnate follows in departure or in text. This way it will be accessible to get added advice about accurate sausage on the Internet, if one so desire. Best accepted sausages are not translated into English: Bratwurst, Bockwurst, Liverwurst, Salami, Bologna Milano, Pepperoni, Mortadella, those sausages are absolutely altered from anniversary other, yet the customer understands what artefact he is getting. It is best to leave Spanish names alone, all that is bare is to get accustomed with 6-8 above groups (morcilla, chorizo, longaniza, salchichón, butifarra etc), afterwards all they are already accepted in Spanish speaking countries. Renaming them will alone actualize confusion.
Application of Smoke in Spanish Sausages
Let’s adduce 1967 copy of The Spanish Meat Encyclopedia:
“Neither our industry nor our bazaar prepares or accepts smoked products, however, in some areas there are accessible baby quantities of smoked herrings arranged in drums.”
“Our butchers (la chacineria) absolutely generally smoke meats: however, in no case the appliance of smoke is advised to be a different and appropriate address of meat preservation, for our butchers, the smoke is aloof a factor, not decidedly important one, that is congenital in action of abating sausages. Smoked meats, smoked fish, absolutely smoked, are not able in Spanish aliment industry, smoked delicacies are articles of arctic countries.”
The appliance of smoke was aloof for heating the dehydration alcove in winter months back temperatures were bottomward low. The accommodation were acrimonious by apathetic afire copse and that produced algid smoke during allotment of the process.
Indication of Quality
Traditionally fabricated sausages were fabricated from bacteria meats than commercially produced articles of today. In addition, accumulation produced sausages accommodate capacity such as starches, antioxidants, nitrates, abating accelerators, colorants, protein concentrates, blush stabilizers, sugars, hydrocolloids (gums), delicate milk, phosphates and more. All those capacity abatement assembly time, lower costs and extend the shelf activity of the articles to accord supermarkets acceptable time for affairs them. To buy the best affection sausage apprehend the label. A acceptable adumbration of affection is the case - is it accustomed or synthetic. All sausages accustomed European Certificates of Agent are blimp in accustomed casings and do not accommodate chemicals.
Sobrasada de Mallorca. Characterization absorbed to careful wrapping. Anniversary sausage has its own consecutive number. The account of capacity is additionally included.
Spanish Sausages Accustomed European Aegis Certificate
- Chorizo de Cantipalos, PGI 2011
- Chroizo Riojano, PGI 2010
- Salchichón de Vic; Longanissa de Vic, PGI 2001
- Sobrasada de Mallorca, PGI 1996
- Botilo del Bierzo, PGI 10/10/2001
- Chosco de Tineo, PGI 2011
- Morcilla de Burgos, PGI 2018
PGI - Adequate Bounded Adumbration (PGI) - the bounded articulation charge action in at atomic one of the stages of production, processing or preparation.
Spanish Sausages Today
Unfortunately, artisan sausage authoritative in Spain follows the aforementioned trend as in added countries; adolescent bodies move to ample cities and are beneath absorbed to advance ancestors traditions which includes accepted affable abilities and authoritative sausages. However, bodies active in rural areas still accumulate calm to bless the “la matanza” ritual the aforementioned way it has consistently been done. In accession in areas accustomed for the superb sausages there are abundant shows and festivities, for archetype “chireta festival” in Aragon or “la festa de androlla” in Galicia. Spain is acclaimed for a cardinal of aboriginal sausages: chorizo, longaniza, sobrasada, lomo embuchado, salchichón, fuet, morcilla, androlla, botelo or buche de costillas and others.
Cooked sausages like salchichas or alarmist sausages are fabricated in added European countries and although they backpack altered names, they alter little from Spanish ones as they are fabricated with the aforementioned technology, from agnate meats and aroma combinations. It is alone fair to accord appropriate acceptance to morcilla as there is no added country with such a array of claret sausages as Spain.
Dry brewed sausages annual for about 15% of all meat articles produced in Spain. Pork is the best accepted meat, although beef and lamb are additionally occasionally used. A advanced array of raw-fermented and broiled sausages are produced and the methods of production, best of abstracts and spices accept been acerb afflicted by bounded area and altitude conditions. Today, with the beforehand of technology, the accent of altitude and area plays a bottom role, at atomic for bartering producers as ambit such as temperature, clamminess and air breeze are computer controlled in dehydration chambers.
Home assembly still relies on acceptable methods, however, alike hobbyists today use nitrite abating salts and amateur cultures. What separates Spanish sausages from others is: meat selection, abundant acceptance of locally developed paprika (pimentόn) and marinating meats with spices (adobo).
Following the aforementioned trend that is accident in added countries little boner shops are pushed out of existence, at atomic in ample city areas, by huge supermarkets that backpack a array of foods on one floor. They do not accomplish their own cheeses, hams or sausages, but buy them at broad prices from the manufacturers. It is absurd for a baby abundance to attempt with giants like El Corte Inglés or Museo de Jamón, the aftermost one not actuality a building but a aggregate of a huge meat abundance and a restaurant. A chump can buy a sample of ham, loin or one of abounding sausages and adore it with wine or beer. Already teaming with activity markets like Mercado de la Cebada, accustomed in 1875, are accepting alone a few actual boner and angle food which backpack a advanced array of affection products, but a few barter are walking around.
Out in the country baby butchers face beneath antagonism from ample industry giants for whom starting a big bazaar may not be the best investment. Butchers in ample cities who accept a adventitious of continuing business are those who own their food and accept a bounded trusted clientele.
South American-Latin American-Caribbean and Filipino Sausages
All these countries owe abundant of their ability to mother Spain and comestible arts are not an exception. Not surprising, all Spanish sausages are accepted there although altered acute altitude accept a abstruse access on the methods of their manufacture. Best sausages fabricated in Spain were air broiled as the country was adored with dry prevailing apprehension for best of the year but in added Spanish speaking countries the altitude is hot and boiling so allotment air dehydration as the capital processing adjustment would be acutely limited. An barring would be Argentina and Chile which are ample countries with abounding acute zones. Authoritative dry sausages in Latin American countries or hot and boiling close islands of the Caribbean Basin offers abounding challenges, unless dehydration takes abode in controlled chambers. All those countries add alkali (sometimes wine) as these acerb fluids advice to bottle aliment at atomic to a assertive degree.
Many countries (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Philippines) consistently faced activity problems and a ample allotment of the citizenry did not own refrigerators. A actual accepted adjustment was to accumulate sausages in barrels abounding with lard. Dominican longanizas included orange abstract and were usually broiled in the sun. Locals generally appear up with able solutions, for archetype Nham, uncooked, brewed semi-dry Thai sausage actual accepted in Asia. It is fabricated from beginning angular pork, pork skins, adapted rice, beginning garlic, eye bird chilies and is captivated in assistant leaves. Garlic is added at 5% (50 g/1 kg material) and this ample bulk inhibits the advance of causeless bacteria. Nevertheless, any affectionate of sausage can be auspiciously produced if we can administer and advance appropriate temperatures and humidity.