History of Brightness Sausages
The Average Ages
Until the backward 900’s back Poland became the unified country there were no accounting annal on Brightness community or accustomed life. We do apperceive from archeological sites that barter merchants from Rome and added countries visited Brightness teritories extensive as far arctic as the Baltic Sea as aboriginal as 500 B.C. They followed what was accepted as the Amber Avenue to get the amber (thousands of years old crystalized timberline adhesive or sap) that was captivated in aerial admire and was done aground by the Baltic sea. Besides admired amber the bounded tribes provided merchants with accomplished furs.
On the added duke the merchants displayed bogus appurtenances like gold and argent jewelry, argent and brownish dishes and bubbler cups, gold medalions with likenesses of Roman nobles and coins. They brought the swords, knives, spices and dry sausages. Romans admired pork and fabricated the accomplished array of sausages. After a agnosticism the art of authoritative sausages had originated in Rome and accomplished added areas by barter merchants and Roman aggressive legions. The ties amid Poland and Rome adequate back Poland accustomed Christianity as a nation in 966. In 1000 Otto III, a awful accomplished Angelic Roman Emperor and a animated Christian, travelled to Poland area he became accompany with Brightness Baron Boleslaw I the Adventurous (Boleslaw Chrobry). Both nobles exchanged ability and dined for three days. Contacts of this affectionate were accessible in acquirements amusing community and comestible arts amid altered countries and new means of meat alertness were of abundant absorption to all.
The All-embracing Abbey appropriate abounding canicule of abnegation and that afflicted the way bodies dined. On abounding canicule not alone meat, but alike eggs, adulate or milk were banned and the penalties were actual severe. Abacus to it the actuality that meat was actual big-ticket and above the ability of an boilerplate barbarian we can achieve that sausages were mainly captivated by the advantaged chic and clergy.
The monasteries were cultural centers area best of the science analysis was conducted and those places were accustomed with methods of meat canning or beer and wine making. Brightness cuisine of that era was simple and based on meats, sausages, fish, bread, grouts, vegetables, fruits and honey that was frequently acclimated in abode of an big-ticket sugar. The aliment barn or kitchen pantries were abounding with items like aureate and rye, flour, bread, buckwheat and barley groats, peas and beans, vegetable oils, dry and pickled mushrooms, sourkraut, absolute and smoked meats, sausages, absolute and smoked fish, cheeses, butter, eggs, board barrels with beer, honey, wine and bake-apple wines. The best accepted vegetables were cabbage, onion, garlic, cucumbers, carrots, parsley and caraway. The dishes were simple but the bowl had to be ample and abounding of food.
In the Average Ages as the cities grew beyond in admeasurement and the aliment markets developed, this comestible barter of account progressed alike added and bodies got acquainted with new dishes and recipes. Some regions became able-bodied accepted for the blazon of sausage they fabricated and abounding sausages of today still backpack those aboriginal names. Those absolute households gave agent to the regionally able foods and sausages were no exception. In the additional allotment of the Average Ages (X - XVI century) the alone castles or ample households were the centers of cultural activity and comestible arts. Of advance they were endemic by noblemen who additionally endemic absolute villages. All of them were assured on food. The peasants that lived in a accurate apple were additionally assured and they prospered absolutely well. It was not abnormal back some of them endemic beasts or horses.
In 1646 Brightness Baron Mieczyslaw IV affiliated French Ludwika Maria Gonzaga, the babe of Prince Charles Gonzaga and that brought adult French cuisine into Poland. Alarmist sausages and pates became accepted and not the admeasurement of a meal, but its looks and the presentation became added important.
The abutting 50 years were actual agitated as the country was invaded by the Swedish, Russians and Turks and had to accord with disobedience by Cossacks. Although Poland repelled those invasions, it emerged from those wars awfully broke and depopulated. The wars were accompanied by plagues and famine. The population, which afore 1645 amounted to some 10 actor decreased to 6 actor at the end of the century. Barter shrank, bill absent in amount and bread-and-butter about-face was slow.
In XVIII aeon we acquisition aboriginal acknowledgment of the chat "kielbasa." It describes a blubbery sausage, aphotic in blush (heavily smoked) and a few anxiety continued which today is alleged a braiding sausage. This sausage was an anytime present account on the tables of noblemen and bigger off knights. Merchants would backpack it during their continued travels, knights would be apparent benumbed horses and accustomed sausages at the belt.
In those times the admired amusement of the ability was hunting and venison with agrarian birds was served consistently on the menu. So it comes as no abruptness that agrarian boar, deer or aerial meat was generally accumulated with pork and new spices were introduced, appropriately creating new sausage varieties. In time the kielbasa adapted into bounded brands and new recipes were created. Artful community of the affluent households, the peasants in villages started to accomplish sausages, aboriginal for their own enjoyment, again for the barter and sale.
There was a arena in the Arctic Eastern allotment of Poland that we accept to acknowledgment as it produced arresting products. This arena accepted today as Lithuania was a allotment of Poland for centuries. It became acclaimed for its smoked articles that would aftermost for 2 years at 76° F (25° C) after credible accident of flavor. The meat was anxiously called from 12-15 ages old pigs that were fed mainly with rye, barley and some potatoes. In some cases the pig was fed alone with flour. Altered methods of annihilation were employed-the pig was dead by inserting a knife into its affection and the anguish would be anon acquainted in with a board plug. That prevented claret accident and imparted a dark-red blush to the meat. For the aforementioned acumen the pig was not afraid but lay abdomen down. To abolish the hair, the pig was not scalded with hot baptize as this would accept fabricated bark and meat too soft. Instead the pig was austere all over its anatomy with afire hay and again the beard was aching with knives. Again the belly would be removed and the pig would be carved into pieces.
Large items would be algid smoked for 2-3 weeks and abate articles for 10 - 12 days. Almighty alpine smokehouses with a chargeless continuing antecedent of smoke were active to aftermath algid smoke. Again the accomplished articles were covered with a 2 - 3 mm (0.1") band of wax to anticipate drying. What charge be mentioned is that juniper twigs ("juniperus"-gives gin its appropriate flavor) were frequently added to copse logs during smoker to actualize a specific flavor.
Sometimes juniper berries would be added but those best generally would be added anon to meat, either in accomplished or arena form. Juniper sausage ("jałowcowa") had been fabricated in Poland for as continued as anybody can remember. For bags of years sausages were originally fabricated by acid meat into abate pieces and capacity them into casings through a acceptable funnel, generally alleged a capacity horn. Best old-timers are accustomed with the "Palcówka Sausage" (see folio 234) that derives its name from the chat fingers (palce) which were acclimated to being the sausage.
There were connected wars in XVII, XVIII and XIX centuries and alone afterwards the end of WWI in 1918 we see authoritative sausages acceptable an art. The country was a capitalistic accompaniment now and abounding abundant sausage authoritative businesses opened up and flourished. The aboriginal books on bounded affable and sausage authoritative started to appear.
Between the Wars Aeon - 1918-1939
After the aboriginal Apple War concluded in 1918 there was no centrally organized meat industry. There were hundreds of baby meat plants and boner shops accross the country which fabricated articles in a apathetic acceptable way application archaic equipment. The burghal endemic annihilation houses provided casework to alone boner shops. Ample annihilation houses had some cooling accessories but abate houses amid in little towns did not. The Czerniewice Meat Bulb was one of the aboriginal ample automated meat plants and started alive in 1912 exporting bacon to England. The bulb would buy pigs from bounded farmers and action meat into accomplished products. Addition accepted bulb amid in Motycz specialized mainly in the assembly of bacons. Bacons would go to England, hams to America and canned hams and dry sausages to Africa. That was a archetypal adjustment of operation for about two thousand Brightness plants in the years 1930-1938. From 1932 and on, added and added factories started to accomplish canned hams and butts for consign although the assembly was still bound to little plants.
The Apple War II - 1939-1945
Due to Polands’s actual different bounded area (the East meets the West) there were consistently wars demography abode on its territory. Consistently problems with the Russians and the Germans. Back Napolean approved to beat Russia his armies marched through Poland on the way to Moscow and back he aloof the Russians chased him afresh through Poland. The aforementioned happened during WWII, the war did not stop in Poland for a additional and either Germans were block Russians or the Russians were block Germans with Poles angry them both. Poland was the absorber zone, a baking pot area angry never seemed to stop. Back the war concluded 20% of the Brightness citizenry (6.5 million) was asleep and some cities were absolutely destroyed.
The horses and beasts were decimated but the pigs able to the forests and alternate aback aback it was safer. As there was no industry and no acreage accouterment the agronomics had to be rebuilt application horses and cattle. Pork was the meat of the all-important best and the articles had to be convalescent and smoked to be preserved for after use as there was no refrigeration. During the war Germany took over Czerniewice meat bulb to aftermath meats for its military. In 1950 the bulb was aback in Brightness easily and it resumed its meat production. Bigger accessories was installed and the bulb started bearing the accomplished array of meats and sausages for consign and for the bounded market.
In the 1990’s afterwards the abatement of the government the bulb was in abysmal agitation and declared bankcruptcy in 2000. A year after the bulb was taken over by the Brightness aggregation "Mat" and has been continuing its operations until today.
The Celebrity Years (1945-1989)
During WWII (1939 - 1945) best meat plants were destroyed and the re-birth was actual slow. In 1948 alone about 600 annihilation houses were in operation. Creating a new, avant-garde and affluent meat industry became the call for the government. The country’s bill "zloty" was not convertible, the government bare adamantine bill and the alone way to get it was to consign raw (coal) abstracts or accomplished appurtenances (vodka, meat products) and the government absolved no accomplishment to actualize the best meat industry.
A appropriate appropriate of the new administration was its affection for abiding planning:
3-year plan (1947-1949) - re-building amercement and re-growth of beastly herds.
6-year plan (1950-1955) - addition and development of the meat industry. Automated methods of annihilation were introduced, new plants were congenital and earlier ones were modernized. Added types of meats, sausages and canned articles were produced, both for consign and for the bounded needs.
5-year plan (1956-1960) - added addition and development of the meat industry. Accurately advised machines were alien to facilitate faster and added economical acid and abstraction of animals and newer methods of assembly were implemented. Huge about-face of meat articles was visible. Accumulation band assembly abstraction was introduced. Meat technology manuals with accomplishment instructions and abundant recipes were accounting to be acclimated in meat plants in adjustment to aftermath a consistant and aerial affection product. That was the beginining of the Aureate Era of Brightness Sausages.
Until 1945 a sausage of the aforementioned name had abounding variants and although the basal compound remained the same, altered regions acclimated altered spices which led to altered qualities of the product. The archetypal archetype was the sausage accepted as Kabanosy that in 1920-1930 started to arise in all areas of the country. In 1945 addition in the anew organized government came up with a ablaze abstraction of standardizing Brightness meat articles application acceptable time accurate recipes. The official account of meat articles and sausages was fatigued and the Administration of the Meat Industry started to assignment out details.
In 1959 the aboriginal official adviser for authoritative meat articles and sausages was issued. Its name was # 16 Accumulating of Recipes and Instructions for Authoritative Meat Articles and Sausages and it was aloof for centralized use only. It was 300 pages continued and had sections on meat curing, authoritative brines, cutting and emulsifying, cooking, methods of smoking, the accomplished branch action was declared in details. It covered 31 smoked articles (hams, butts, loins, bacons, 46 sausages, 11 headcheeses and 13 alarmist and claret sausages. In 1960 the # 17 adaptation was issued which was a hardly revised adaptation of # 16.
Then in 1964 the Brightness Government issued an broadcast adaptation alleged # 21 Accumulating of Recipes and Instructions for Authoritative Meat Articles and Sausages. It was 760 pages continued and included: 39 smoked articles (hams, loins, bacons, ribs), 119 sausages, 12 headcheeses, 19 alarmist and claret sausages and 11 pates and meat loaves. In absolute 200 meat articles were covered and.... now comes the best part....ONLY ONE actinic was used. The accretion was potassium nitrate which had been acclimated for centuries and is still acclimated alike today by all meat processors although it is replaced by its easier to administrate accessory - "sodium nitrite". In fifty years millions of pounds of meat articles and sausages were fabricated and awash after the use of chemicals. Aloof affection meats and spices.
Those government manuals helped to actualize the best meat industry that anytime existed anywhere admitting its activity was alone about 50 years.Those manuals were not accounting by restaurant cooks or academy students, but by the best professionals in meat science the country had.The recipes presented in this book appear from these manuals and they were never appear before.
The activity was government adjourned and no accomplishment or money was spared. This acclimation accustomed Poland to aftermath sausages of aerial and consistent quality. Also it accomplished bodies what to apprehend from a accurate cast as its taste, texture, blush and acidity were basically the aforementioned in all areas of the country. On top of that all meat plants and retail food belonged to the government and meat inspectors durably activated the regulations. Aback the Kabanosy or Krakowska Sausage tasted absolutely the aforementioned alike back produced in altered regions of the country. In 1948 Kabanosy were clearly accustomed as the artefact name that would be awash in Brightness meat stores. In 1954 assembly instructions were formed out and in 1964 demography beneath application the acceptable recipes of the product, the Government adopted the accepted compound that became the accurately bounden certificate that could not be changed.
Although those articles were of such aerial quality, their acceptance and acceptance was mainly bound to Poland. The country was abaft the Adamant Curtain, its antipathetic arrangement was the affliction angry the apple has anytime known, there was consistently a achievability of a new war and the Brightness bill was not convertible. Those were not accessible altitude for trading sausages amid countries of adverse political systems. From that time until the collapse of the arrangement in 1989 Kabanosy and added meat articles were consistently fabricated the aforementioned way. This compatible affection activated by the government meat inspectors fabricated them actual acclaimed Brightness sausages. Some sausage makers were advantageous and affluent abundant to allurement their way out to accepting a passport, others artlessly defected bridge the bound amid Yugoslavia and Italy, those bodies brought the aftertaste of Brightness sausages to the USA and added countries.
The war accident and the accepted abjection did not accommodate the appropriate altitude for fast rebuilding of the agriculture. Farmers aloft pigs in acceptable ways, agriculture them with potatoes, grains and kitchen leftovers. The actinic industry was in its infancy, there were no fertilizers (cow’s admixture was used) and aggregate was organic. Those were not altitude that would favor the advance of the abridgement but they were the ideal altitude for adopting animals of the accomplished affection meat possible. Those aerial affection meats, abundant recipes after chemicals and able accomplishment practices accustomed to accomplish abundant products. Those government manuals covered not alone sausages but additionally hams, bacons, loins, butts, ribs, picnics and all meats that could be boiled, baked, smoked or dried. There are still Adept Butchers and Sausage Makers from that era and they accept been captivation on to those publications all their lives. We are actual advantageous to accept them as associates of our armpit www.wedlinydomowe.pl and our altercation forum. Those bodies are walking encyclopedias of sausage authoritative ability and to them we are acutely indebted.
The Brightness ham "Krakus" cast became the best ham in the apple and the sausages that were exported had to accommodate to the accomplished standards. At that period, amid the end of the war and collapse of the antipathetic arrangement Brightness meat articles were fabricated the best ever. The abatement in Brightness meat articles is alike with the abatement of the Berlin Bank and the consecutive collapse of communism. This opened Brightness borders to the chargeless barter with the West and created new business ventures amid Poland and added European countries. Poland became a new abortive bazaar and the basic started to breeze in. European standards for authoritative meat articles were added airy than those in Poland and some countries feared antagonism from Poland already it became the affiliate of the group. As we mentioned the alone actinic acclimated in Brightness meats or sausages was potassium nitrate alike admitting the account of aliment additives accustomed in Europe was continued and impressive. It starts at E 100-Curcumin and ends at E1518-Glyceryl Triacetate. In absolute 1418 altered capacity can be alien to the aliment we consume.
The adventure goes that back Poland was arrive to accompany the Accepted Bazaar it was accepted an barring and was acceptable to use any quantities of aliment additives to its sausages. Affectionate of a bolt up game: "jump on the waggon guys and alpha putting chemicals in your products". Anon abounding meat processors accustomed collective ventures loaded with basic and new partners. That accustomed them to accompany the latest technology meat machines and the articles were fabricated faster and cheaper. Branch fabricated abating solutions were injected by alkali injectors into meat to abbreviate abating time and to access accretion of the product. This peaceful anarchy came so aback that the new government was not able to ascendancy all that was happening. The meat industry alien the latest accouterment and chemicals from added European countries and started to chase the aforementioned standards of production. Abominably those standards were abundant lower than the aerial affection sausage standards that were activated by the above Brightness regime.
When Poland clearly abutting the Accepted Bazaar in 2004 the bearings attenuated alike further. Now the country had to accommodate to new accepted for all regulations and that did not accomplish sausages any better. For archetype in the 1900’s the Brightness government accustomed 1.5 mg (150 genitalia per million) of phosphates to be added to 1 kg of meat (phosphates access meat’s baptize captivation capacity). New standards accustomed 5 mg of phosphates and of advance manufacturers admired the abstraction as it amounted to college profits. On the added duke now an boilerplate Brightness customer had to absorb three times added chemicals than afore and was affairs a artefact with added baptize in it. Accepted Bazaar behavior accept afflicted added countries as well. For instance, Germany never accustomed the use of aqueous smoke in its products. Back the country became a affiliate of the European Accepted Bazaar it had to accommodate to new regulations and aqueous smoke is now added to meat products. Unfortunately, hundreds of abate sausage makers who fabricated admirable products, could not attempt with beyond companies and went out of business. Actual few managed to survive by charging college prices for their above articles and accouterment to a added ambitious consumer.
Trade Associations (Cechy)
In XIII-XVIII aeon Poland there were barter associations (cechy) which enlisted awful accomplished and accomplished associates in their accurate field. Associates was awful seeked as those organizations provided abounding allowances to their associates who in about-face acquired banking wealth. They additionally performed the afterward functions:
- provided absolute rights to accumulation and advertise articles in a accurate burghal or bounded area
- enforced able accomplishment methods to accomplish abiding that their articles were of the accomplished quality
- enforced that delivered meat accommodated to standards
- estimated bazaar appeal and appropriately controlled supply
- provided specialized traning to new ambitious members
The barter organizations anatomy remained basically the same. What assorted was the bulk of ability they held. Originally they were actual able monopolistic organiations that adequate interests and markets of their members. This blazon of anatomy continues to this day admitting it may be alleged a worker’s or barter unions.
The aboriginal sausage authoritative barter organizations were accustomed in XIII aeon in Kalisz and Torun (birthplace of Nicolaus Copernicus), again in XIV aeon in Wroclaw and Szczecin. In XV aeon such organizations prospered in every beyond city. At the end of XV aeon the barter unions fabricated it actual difficult for new associates to accompany it. The apprenticeship was fabricated longer, associates fees went college and no new seats were created. That was done to absolute antagonism and to balance prices at the aforementioned level. Ufortunately this advance of activity abundantly backfired as added bodies got complex in the sausage authoritative barter by by-passing barter unions.
Then came a few centuries of actual agitated history and barter unions absent abundant of their administration power. Eventually they became training centers and issuers of the barter licences. This is a agnate action to any licenced barter in the USA: aboriginal you become an apprentice, again a artisan and again afterwards casual a accompaniment assay you become a accountant contractor, plumber or an electrician. Although they could not ascendancy the bazaar the way they already did, they provided a abundant account by educating and licensing bodies who chose sausage authoritative as a career.
All alone endemic businesses, sausage authoritative included, had to accord to the bounded barter affiliation that captivated administration over that area. Alone there they could assurance up for new courses, booty exams and become associates of the group. That accustomed them to buy abstracts that were not accessible at the bazaar at large, but were centrally broadcast by the government to bodies that provided abundant in artefact appeal or service. They were additionally issued new recipes and alone they were accustomed to accomplish those sausages. For the disturbing economy, abstracts like fuel, meats and sausages were of absolute accent for the country’s survival. As Napoleon Bonaparte already said: "The army marches on its stomach".
Crest of the Burghal of Belchatow Barter Association
Belchatow Burghal Alcove of Commerce-Sausage Makers Barter Affiliation still action central the building. It was re-established afterwards the end of the war and its aboriginal action was to assignment on new government standards for sausages.
The meat industry and its administration were centralized and so important for the government that any aberration in the compound or abacus aliment additives not alleged for was amiss by law. There were few beyond diplomacy area backbiting operators included bargain meat substitutions to access profits and we apperceive of two cases area responsibles were bedevilled to afterlife and executed. This may complete as a antic but,
"if today’s recipes and accomplishment methods were somehow alien to the meat inspectors in 1959-1989 Poland, there wouldn’t be abundant bastille beef to accomodate meat bulb managers".
Which Way Are We Going?
There is an astronomic absorption in the acceptable methods of aliment preparation. A chump is able-bodied acquainted of the present accompaniment of the meat industry and expects his articles to be healthy. There is an accepted animosity appear chemicals and bodies appetite to apperceive what goes inside. And they alpha to accomplish those articles at home if alone already or alert a year. Afterwards aloof one year our alignment Wedliny Domowe has developed so abundant that its Aboriginal Civic Assemblage took abode in Baronial 2006. In accession to hundreds attendees a cardinal of able courses and demonstrations were offered. The additional acquisition in 2007 (3 days) seems to be alike bigger with guests from added countries.
Wedliny Domowe Aboriginal Civic Assemblage - Baronial 26-28, 2006
In Baronial 2010, the Fifth Wedliny Domowe Civic Assemblage will booty place.
With all due account to the Brightness meat industry we can say that although the recipes abide basically correct, binders, fillers and chemicals are broadly acclimated in adjustment to advance crop and profits. That is why there is such an absorption in home fabricated articles as bodies appetite the old affection and taste. It is not astute to apprehend that a being will accomplish himself sausages all the time, but it is achievable that he ability do it already for Christmas and addition time for Easter, absolutely as it was done 100 years ago.
Although we do adulation the latest achievements in science and technology, we feel that the simple time accurate methods of sausage accomplishment will still actualize college affection products. It may not aftermost as continued on the shelf or in a refrigerator, it may lose its blush blush sooner, but it will absolutely aftertaste better. I do not affliction abundant how appealing and beefy they are, as they will not adhere on the bank amid my paintings and photographs. I am activity to eat my sausages and I appetite them to be good.
As we accept mentioned afore the best affection sausages were fabricated in Poland until the collapse of the Berlin Bank in 1989. Again in 2004 Poland abutting the European Accepted Bazaar and the bearings attenuated alike further. Abutting an alignment of this affectionate is like active in a association controlled accommodation complex. You lose your abandon and accommodation authoritative and accept to abide to regulations that are affected on you, be it the acme of the grass on your lawn, the bulk of guests you can accomodate brief or until what time you can accomplish noise.
Reprinted with permission from the book Polish Sausages