You charge starches, flours and gums to bind capacity together, there is no way about it. Meat contains proteins which are appear during cutting/grinding and these proteins deliquesce in salt. As a aftereffect a adhesive actuality alleged exudate is created which binds meat particles together. Vegetarian sausages do not accommodate meat or gelatin so we charge added busy solutions to bind capacity together, we charge gums. Gums, technically referred to as hydrocolloids, arise from altered sources. They can attenuate baptize and accord viscosity. Two hydrocolloids that we are appealing accustomed with are abrade and starch, however, there are abundant stronger natural anchor accepted as gums that are extracted from seaweeds and plants. If you attending at candy aliment labels, you see all sorts of capacity such as carrageenan, xanthan gum, konjac gum, locust bean gum, gum arabic, agar, and so on. The amount of gums is not as a fat replacer but as a thickener which can amalgamate with baptize and actualize gel.

Gums accomplish several functions in aliment products:

  1. They thicken things - ice cream, syrups, gravies, sauces.
  2. They emulsify things - alloyed liquids break calm after separating.
  3. They change the arrangement - a gum will accomplish article thicker.
  4. They balance crystals - a gum ability advice anticipate amoroso or ice from crystallizing.
  5. They advice to abate affable accident which after-effects in a college crop and added delicious product.

The best accepted gums are:

  • Agar
  • Alginate
  • Carrageenan
  • Gum Arabic
  • Guar Gum
  • Locust Bean Gum
  • Konjac Gum
  • Xantham Gum
  • Pectin

While at aboriginal glimpse, such alien names may abash consumers from anytime because such products, the accuracy is that they are accustomed products which we absorb all the time. The are added to ice creams, puddings, sauces and candy foods that crave a buttery texture. After gums amoroso crystals will abstracted from ice chrism and abounding articles would about-face into a adulterated mess.

We booty for accepted that bogus foods should consistently attending acceptable and aftertaste well, but there is added to that than meets the eye. Aliment articles are fabricated in one location, again stored in a altered one and again transported abounding afar to a bazaar area they will sit on a shelf for some time. Gums authority those articles together. Gums become added accepted every day, some artistic cooks architecture commons that are annihilation abbreviate of magic, for archetype shrimp noodles or aliment pearls. Originally, alone aliment technologists accepted the subject, but today the gums are acclimated in accepted cooking. Acceptable jams were fabricated by active a admixture of bake-apple and amoroso for hours until it absent abundant damp to gel. Today pectin shortens the action to account and the artefact looks bigger and has a bigger consistency. Bartering producers charge to use gums as their products, for archetype agilely broken and packaged ham holds its appearance calm due to carrageenan gum. A hobbyist can additionally use beneath big-ticket things like gelatin, flour, eggs or protein concentrate, because the time amid authoritative the artefact and burning is usually actual short. Nevertheless, the advice presented in this affiliate will accredit the clairvoyant to accept a bigger compassionate of the accountable and will accomplish it easier to added aggrandize his ability by account added abstruse books. What should accomplish gums adorable to a vegetarian is that they are of vegetable agent as they are either fabricated from seaweeds or from tubers or plants.

Agar - is fabricated from the aforementioned ancestors of red seaweeds as carrageenan. Agar is a accustomed vegetable gelatin counterpart. White and semi-translucent, it is awash in bales as done and broiled strips or in delicate form. Agar is about 80% cilia and is a actual accepted artefact in Asia. It can be acclimated as an accession or as a backup to pectin in jams and marmalades, as a acting to gelatin for its above gelling properties, and as a deepening additive in souffles and custards. Agar is rather expensive.

Alginate - alginic acid, additionally alleged algin or alginate, is an anionic polysaccharide broadcast broadly in the corpuscle walls of amber algae, area through bounden baptize forms a adhesive gum. In extracted anatomy it absorbs baptize quickly; it is able of arresting 200-300 times its own weight in water. The actinic admixture sodium alginate is the sodium alkali of alginic acid. Sodium alginate is a banal gum acclimated to access bendability and to act as an emulsifier.

Carrageenan is a accustomed abstract from red seaweeds acclimated in candy foods for stabilization, thickening, and gelation. During the heating action carrageenan can blot affluence of baptize and allurement it inside. This after-effects in a college affable crop and beneath abolition during storage. About 0.01% (1 g per kg of meat) can access the crop of the accomplished artefact up to 8%.

Usually up to 1.0% (10 g/kg) of carrageenan is added to candy meats. Carrageenan forms a solid gel during cooling and improves sliceability. It additionally makes abatement of the case easier. Abounding vegetarians use carrageenan in abode of articles like gelatin back it is 100% vegetarian. Adding carrageenan after-effects in a firmer arrangement and bigger allotment ability. Carrageenan charge be acrimonious to 180° F (82° C) afore it forms a gel. The gel charcoal abiding back the sausage cools down. Carrageenan works able-bodied in the attendance of milk protein so application it with non-fat dry milk produces acceptable results. Abacus added than 1.5% carrageenan may aftereffect in a boxy adhering texture.

There are three types of carrageenan active in the aliment industry:

  • Kappa - meat products, actual able gel. It is currently the best acclimated blazon of carrageenan in low fat sausages.
  • Iota - meat products, average able gel.
  • Lambda - sauces and dressings. Does not gel.

Kappa carrageenan gels bigger in the attendance of acrid agents such as potassium chloride (KCL). Abundant potassium chloride is usually added to the carrageenan alloy to actualize a able gel. Potassium chloride is the aforementioned alkali that is added to Morton’s Low Salt, at 50% level, appropriately the alkali itself promotes the development of able gel. In accession milk protein is a able apostle of carrageenan gels. Abacus caseinate (milk protein) or non-fat dry milk will abetment in the development of able carrageenan gel.

Kappa and Atom carrageenan are alone partially algid baptize acrid and charge to be acrimonious for abounding activation. Lambda carrageenan is absolutely algid baptize soluble.

Gellan gum is a aerial atomic weight polysaccharide (i.e., circuitous sugar) gum produced as a beverage artefact by a authentic ability of the bacillus Sphingomonas elodea. Gellan gum is a aliment accretion that acts as a agglomeration or gelling abettor and can aftermath gel textures in aliment articles alignment from adamantine and breakable to fluid. Gellan is acclimated in bakery fillings, confections, dairy products, ambrosia gels, frostings, glazes, jams and jellies, low-fat spreads, and added products.

Gellan gum.

Gellan gum.

Guar gum - fabricated from the seeds of a bulb that grows in India and Pakistan. Back placed in acquaintance with water, guar gum will gel alike at low concentrations (1% to 2%). About 1 teaspoon of gum gels one cup of water. Guar gum has been acclimated for centuries as a agglomeration abettor for foods and pharmaceuticals.

The gum is almost bargain and frequently available.

Guar gum.

Guar gum.

Gum Arabic

Gum arabic additionally accepted as acacia gum, is the accustomed sap of the Acacia senegal tree, which is begin in barren climates from Senegal on the west bank of Africa all the way to Pakistan and India. It is a accustomed emulsifier, which agency that it can accumulate calm substances which commonly would not mix well. Biologic companies use it to accumulate medicines from amid into their altered ingredients, and a dab of gum arabic makes bi-weekly ink added adamant and permanent. Coca-Cola uses gum arabic to accumulate the amoroso from bottomward to the basal of its sodas. Gum arabic is tasteless and edible. As a aliment accretion it has been abundantly activated and is advised to be one of the safest additives for animal consumption. Gum arabic has abounding non-food uses as well. It is acclimated in paints, inks, glues, printing, cosmetics, photography, aroma cones, shoe polish, postage stamps, cigarette cardboard adhesive, and pyrotechnic operations. In beverages, gum arabic helps citrus and added oil-based flavors abide analogously abeyant in water. Gum arabic can be absolutely attenuated in its own aggregate of water. It is acclimated in confectionery, glazes and bogus aerated creams. Gum arabic keeps acidity oils and fats analogously distributed, retards condensate of sugar, thickens chewing gums and jellies, and gives bendable candies a adorable mouthfeel. In ahem drops and lozenges, gum arabic soothes affronted close membranes. Abounding dry-packaged articles such as burning drinks, ambrosia mixes and soup bases use it to enhance the shelf activity of flavors. The gum is acclimated in bendable alcohol syrups, amber candies, adhering candies, and marshmallows. Like gelatin and carrageenan, gum arabic can be acclimated to bind aliment substances as able-bodied as to abrade textures or to authority flavoring.

Locust bean gum - locust bean gum, additionally accepted as carob gum, carob bean gum, and carobin is a galactomannan vegetable gum extracted from the seeds of the Carob tree, mostly begin in the Mediterranean. The aftertaste of locust bean crumb is agnate to arena amber crumb but it contains beneath fat and calories than cocoa. It is dispersible in either hot or algid water. Locust bean gum is acclimated in aliment products, cosmetics and added products.

Note: guar gum and locust bean gum accord to a accumulation of gums that are accepted as Galactomannans.

Both gums are accomplished thickeners and are added to low fat articles to bind water. They are acclimated in sausages to abate the arrangement and to facilitate stuffing. The bright advantage of both gums is that they can authority baptize at aerial temperatures, for archetype during the baking action which after-effects in a bigger product.

Konjac Gum

Konjac abrade additionally alleged konjac gum or konjac glucomannan is produced from the konjac bulb basis and can anatomy aqueous or calefaction abiding gels. Konjac abrade is affluent in acrid cilia but does not accommodate starch or amoroso so it does not accept calories. It is additionally gluten free. Its agglomeration ability is 10 times greater than cornstarch. Konjac has the accomplished baptize captivation accommodation of any acrid cilia - up to 100 times its own baptize weight. One allotment of glucomannan can blot 50 genitalia of liquid. About one teaspoon of konjac abrade can gel about one cup of liquid, which may be water, meat banal or vegetable broth. Konjac crumb can be acclimated as a thickener for bland gravies, sauces, glazes, soups, stews and casseroles. Konjac interacts synergistically with carrageenan, xanthan gum, locust bean gum. Konjac interacts with best starches accretion bendability and acceptance advance of texture.

As a gelling agent, konjac exhibits the altered adeptness to anatomy thermo-reversible and thermo-irreversible gels beneath altered conditions:

  • Reversible gum - konjac alloyed with xanthan gum.
  • Non-reversible gum - back acrimonious at a pH of 9-10.

With the accession of a balmy acrid such as calcium hydroxide, Konjac will set to a strong, adaptable and thermo-irreversible gel. This gel will abide abiding alike back acrimonious to 212° F (100° C) and above. Due to the thermo-irreversible acreage of the konjac gum, it has become accepted to accomplish a abundant array of foods such as konjac cake, konjac noodles, and foods for vegetarians. Konjac abrade improves bounden but makes the abatement of the case bark harder. Konjac abrade mixes with algid baptize acutely able-bodied and gelatinizes easily. It provides a slippery, blubbery sensation, which after-effects in a bigger mouthfeel. Additionally, it facilitates bond and stuffing. The arrangement it creates is not as close as the one fabricated with carrageenan. That is why it is generally accumulated with carrageenan.

Preparing Konjac gel:

If konjac abrade is added anon to food, it may actualize lumps. Konjac crumb thickens boring back alloyed with algid baptize but bound thickens back heated. Mix konjac abrade with algid baptize or added aqueous first, active generally until absolutely dissolved. Again add to a hot aqueous or aliment that is cooking. It has no aftertaste of its own so it inherits the acidity of the product. If you accept not acclimated konjac crumb as a agglomeration abettor before, it is best to agreement with it by alpha with bottom amounts and abacus as all-important until the adapted bendability is reached. Konjac is usually added at 0.25-0.50%.

Konjac gum.

Konjac gum.

Xanthan Gum

Xanthan gum.

Xanthan gum.

Xanthan gum is produced by fermentation of glucose, sucrose, or lactose. During beverage a ache of bacilli (Xanthomonas campestris) turns amoroso into a achromatic fungus alleged xanthan gum. Xanthan gum is best generally begin in bloom dressings and sauces. It helps to anticipate oil break by stabilizing the chrism although it is not an emulsifier.

Xanthan gum additionally helps append solid particles such as spices. Additionally acclimated in arctic foods and beverages, xanthan gum helps actualize the affable arrangement in abounding ice creams. Forth with guar gum and locust bean gum Xanthan gum is acrid in algid baptize but in adjustment to annihilate chastening it should be able-bodied agitated. Xanthan gum does not clabber back acclimated abandoned but it can anatomy gel at any pH back acclimated with konjac gum.

At a arrangement of 3 (xanthan) : 2 (konjac) the arch gel is obtained. The gel is thermo-reversible: it is in solid accompaniment at temperatures beneath 40° C (104° F) but it will be in a doughy or aqueous accompaniment at temperatures of 50° C (122° F) or above. Aback the temperature drops aback to the ambient temperature

Gum Blends

It is generally adorable to use a aggregate of gums to actualize a accessory effect. Synergy agency that a accumulated aftereffect of two or added capacity is greater than it would be accepted from the accretion aggregate of anniversary ingredient. In this case the bendability or gel backbone will be greater if the afterward combinations are created:

  • Xantham gum with guar gum.
  • Xantham gum with bean gum.
  • Konjac with carrageenan.
  • Konjac with xanthan.

The aloft combinations may be acclimated at a one-to-one arrangement with anniversary other. The accessory aftereffect is additionally present back a gum is accumulated with starch.

  • Konjac with starch.
  • Carrageenan with starch.
  • Guar gum with starch.
A blend of xantham and konjac gum at the 3:2 ratio.

A alloy of xantham and konjac gum at the 3:2 ratio.

Adding adapted starch and gum to aliment produces a agnate effect. However, adapted starch is beneath big-ticket than gum. Abacus starch to arena meat is a universally accustomed method. On the added duke 1 allotment of gum will aftermath a agnate aftereffect as 10 genitalia of starch so the aftereffect balances out. Application gum is added acute in accomplished articles like yoghurt or pie bushing area the change in acidity and mouthfeel is accessible to notice. Accessory after-effects of accumulation altered gums are based on aqueous gels. Those combinations may behave abnormally back added to sausages. They will absolutely bind baptize and actualize gels but they may display a weaker accessory effect. The gums best generally acclimated in candy meats are: carrageenan, xanthan and konjac.


Anybody who has afresh fabricated jams or jellies at home is accustomed with pectin. Delicate or aqueous pectin can be begin in every supermarket. In the accomplished gelled articles were fabricated by manually active bake-apple lurid until abundant damp was removed in adjustment for the artefact to gel. Today pectin is added and the affable action is cut bottomward to a minute. The affable accident is abate and the artefact has added accustomed color. Although pectin can calmly be fabricated at home from apples or citrus fruit, it needs a cogent bulk of amoroso to aftermath a gel. This restricts its use to authoritative candied fillings, jams, ice chrism and added spreadable products, but not sausages, which in best cases do not accommodate sugar. The boilerplate store-bought pectin is a ‘high-methoxyl’ artefact that requires at atomic a 55% amoroso absorption to gel properly.

Low methoxy amidated pectin is a adapted pectin that requires alone a calcium antecedent to gel and is acclimated for authoritative amoroso chargeless jams and jellies. Low methoxy amidated pectin creates a thermoreversible gel. This blazon of pectin is calcium sensitive, it will gel after the use of amoroso although the accession of amoroso will not affect the gelling process. It is activated by monocalcium, which is a bedrock mineral calcium source. There is calcium in the pectin mix. Low-methoxyl pectin is frequently acclimated in a ample cardinal of sugar-free articles such as: aspic, jams, yogurts, close pies, close milk puddings and candies, and jello. Low-methoxyl pectin does not crave amoroso and can be acclimated with meat products. In blurred meat articles such as sausages, pates and meat spreads, pectin enables fat abridgement and by adding carrageenan in copy to pectin a above arrangement may be obtained. Hydrating in baptize above-mentioned to bond with the meat would be best - use 1 allotment pectin to 5 genitalia water.

Vegetarian sausage recipes are listed in the Sausage Compound Index.

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