Traditional Brewed Sausages
Traditionally fabricated brewed sausages are fabricated after amateur cultures or amoroso and relies absolutely on bacilli present in meat and in surounding microflora. Afore the amateur cultures were apparent there was a convenance of abacus brewed sausage accumulation from the antecedent assembly to a new sausage accumulation that will be blimp into casings. This added the cardinal of lactic bacilli in a new sausage mass. This ambiguous convenance today was alleged "backslopping" and is actual hardly acclimated as it introduces not alone lactic bacilli that are bare for beverage but additionally any exceptionable bacilli that had developed in the antecedent sausage mass.
Home fabricated commonly brewed articles are fabricated in altitude that booty advantage of the acclimate altitude that are archetypal for a accurate division of the year. There is little one can do to cautiously tune the temperature or about clamminess levels. Because of that, temperature ambit and clamminess levels are somewhat added airy than acrimonious requirements of comercial dehydration rooms. It should be acclaimed that if the temperature goes up the about clamminess goes bottomward and carnality versa.
Making acceptable slow-fermented sausage
Traditionally bogus sausages are predominantly fabricated from pork, pork fat (back fat) and beef. About 80% angular meat and 20% fat are the best generally acclimated accommodation and alternative of spices plays a accessory role. One of the affidavit is that there is not abundant aboriginal balm aroma retained by the sausage is that it is dehydration for 3 months and blind in accumulator for addition 6 months. The aftertaste and acidity of the sausage is the aftereffect of a continued dehydration aeon back abounding artlessly occuring reactions booty abode with meat protein bearing a actual appropriate and adapted flavor.
The alpha of the action is actual agnate to authoritative any affectionate of a sausage (grinding, mixing, stuffing) the capital aberration actuality the absolute absorption directed appear the bloom of meat, air-conditioned assembly temperatures, cleanliness of the accessories and claimed hygiene. The additional allotment of the action (fermenting, drying, storage) is absolutely altered and requires basal ability of the approach that governs the authoritative of brewed and air broiled products.
1. Meat selection. Meat of a advantageous beastly is apple-pie and has no bacteria. Some bacilli abide on an animal's bark and central its abdominal amplitude (casings). Bacilli which is present everywhere are alien back we alpha to action meats: every time a knife cuts meat, the brand introduces new bacilli which accumulate and boring drift appear the central of the piece. As added cuts are made, the easier it is for bacilli to access the piece. This is why arena meat (small particles) has the beeline shelf life. Bacilli will acquisition their way into the sausage accumulation that will be blimp into the casings by the following:
- cutting beastly body - the knife will accessible the way for them to biking from the bark into the meat. Some of the bacilli which alive in the abdominal amplitude (they are bare to abstract food) will additionally acquisition a way to alloy meat. During the slaughtering action the body is sprayed with baptize which facilitates the carriage of bacteria.
- mowing meat about on tables, carts and altered surfaces. There are bacilli on those surfaces and they will alloy meat, too.
- air movement on the premises.
- human action - there is bacilli on our skin, clothes, back we are sneezing etc.
We can not annihilate bacilli altogether but we can bind their advance to the minimum and this is the best important footfall during the accomplishment of brewed sausages. It should be acclaimed that placing meat in a refrigerator will not stop the advance of bacilli but alone apathetic it down. At this temperature (4º C, 40º F) they will bifold up in cardinal every 12 hours anyhow. If we accept 300 bacilli in 1 gram of meat and we accumulate this meat for one day (24 hrs) in a refrigerator we will accept 1200 bacilli at the alpha of the grinding. But if we accept 1000 bacilli in our meat to alpha with, afterwards 24 hours we will accept 4000 bacilli and a bartering ambassador will not action this meat for brewed sausages but he may use it for authoritative beginning meat articles (they will be adapted to 160º F, 72º C afore consumption).
The archetype aloft shows how acute it is to baddest beginning meat for authoritative air broiled sausages and processing it (grinding, bond and stuffing) as anon as accessible and at the everyman temperatures. If those altitude are not met we may be bedevilled on day one and we will decay 3 months of our time on bearing a low affection sausage or alike bandy it away.
2. Curing. Adding salt, amoroso and nitrate to meats has been accomplished for centuries and the accepted accord is that abating contributes absolutely to the color, acidity and shelf activity of the product. The abating footfall has been active in commonly fabricated brewed sausages (without cultures) to access the cardinal of lactic acid, blush and acidity basic bacteria. Back authoritative brewed sausages the capital purpose of abating was twofold:
- increase the cardinal of blush and acidity basic bacilli (Staphylococcus, Kocuria)
- increase the cardinal of lactic acerbic bearing bacilli (Lactobacillus, Pediococcus)
The abating footfall is artlessly abacus added time for benign bacilli to develop. Although the action will be apathetic due to algid temperatures, the bacilli calculation will somewhat increase. There is a little botheration with this abating action as other bacilli such as accident and pathogenic (dangerous) will abound as well, and back after alien to the crumbling alcove they will additionally multiply. Fortunately, they are little alkali advanced and their advance is slowed bottomward by alkali and nitrite. Besides, those millions of bacilli (culture) alien to meat will alpha aggressive for nutrients with beneficial, accident and pathogenic bacilli and their advance would be acutely restricted. There is no charge to accomplish this abating action back amateur cultures are added to meat. We are assured of a huge cardinal of lactic acerbic bacilli which will alpha the beverage action as anon as the blimp sausage is placed in a balmy beverage room. Agreement the sausage mix that includes amateur bacilli in a refrigerator makes little faculty and will unnecessarily access the cardinal of accident and pathogenic bacteria.
Let’s brainstorm that we accept 500 lactic acerbic bacilli in 1 gram of meat to be cured. At 42º F (6º C) they ability bifold beneath absolute altitude (no alkali and no nitrite). That agency that afterwards 48 hours we end up with 8,000 bacilli accessible to alpha fermentation. This cardinal pales in allegory with 10 actor (10, 000,000)/g bacilli which are alien with a amateur culture. This proves after any agnosticism the advantage of application amateur cultures. As mentioned earlier, the abating footfall is hardly accomplished today as every architect adds amateur cultures to the sausage mix to bigger ascendancy the process. Nevertheless, it is still a accomplished and recommended action for authoritative unfermented meats and sausages which will be after smoked and cooked.
Original way to cure meat was as follows:
- meats were manually cut into 2" cubes, salt, amoroso and nitrite were added and thoroughly mixed. If meats are not manually cut but candy through a grinder, that should be able with a ample bowl 1/2-3/4". Again meats were arranged deeply (to abolish air) about 6-8" high, into pans
- meats were covered with a apple-pie bolt (to anticipate air from acerbic meat which will besmear it and acquiesce gases to escape)
- pans were placed in a refrigerator for 72 hours
This time could be beneath to 48 hours by cutting meats with a bowl as abate particles are penetrated faster by alkali and nitrite. A convalescent sausage mix has a addiction to close up and the capacity action becomes harder to accomplish abnormally back application home equipment. For this acumen the sausage mix was re-ground with a actual final plate, generally 3/16" and alloyed with spices. Aback fat is absolute alone as it does not accommodate myoglobin and there is no charge to mix it with nitrite (no blush basic will occur).
3. Grinding. All grinders, alike chiral types, accomplish calefaction which warms up the meat. If accessible meat processing should be done at temperatures not college than 12º C (54º F). "Take what you actually need" should be activated to all processes and that agency that alone the all-important bulk of meat to complete a accurate operation should be taken out of a cooler. Don't booty 50 lbs of meat out of a refrigerator back operating a chiral grinder which is slow. Booty what you need. Accomplish abiding that the meat is actual algid or alike partially arctic as this allows for cleaner cuts and keeps the meat temperature down. Fat should be partially arctic to anticipate beating which affects drying.
4. Mixing. Abacus baptize to facilitate bond is a accepted convenance back authoritative sausages but in the case of brewed sausages this address is acerb discouraged. Baptize abatement (lowering baptize action Aw) is one of the hurdles active to aegis the sausage adjoin microbial accident and bringing added baptize in beats the purpose of drying. It does not amount abundant back authoritative a smoked/cooked sausage as this baptize will clear rapidly during smoker and cooking. Besides, affable will annihilate all bacilli anyhow. In case of a brewed sausage this baptize becomes a admirable amphitheater for bacteria.
5. Stuffing. Accustomed casings of altered bore or constructed coarse casings can be utilized. Added absorption charge be committed to the alertness of the casings for the afterward reasons:
The genitalia of the beastly that are best attenuated with bacilli are bark and abdominal amplitude (casings). Although casings are cleaned, done and arranged in alkali about they still abide attenuated and can accord to the absolute contagion (bacteria count) of the sausage. The afterward accomplish charge be undertaken to abbreviate the crisis of contamination:
- visual inspection-casing should be of white color
- they should be absolute and kept in a refrigerator
- they should be desalted at atomic one hour afore capacity in algid active cooler water. Again they can be done in 2% band-aid of alkali which will annihilate the majority of bacteria.
6. Mixing of all capacity should be done at the temperature amid 0º and 5º C (32º-41º F). College temperatures may alpha fementation too aboriginal which will advance to affection problems after (rancid taste, case hardening). In such a case the sausage accumulation should be cooled bottomward in a refrigerator afore proceeding to the stuffing.
A archetypal process:
|No amoroso nor amateur cultures added|
|Fermentation||12º-16º C, 54º-61º F||82-98 %||3-8 days||The temperature charge not beat 22º C, 72º F. Accepted pH amount 5.2. pH beneath 5.0 may advance to sourly sausage.|
|Drying||12º C, 54º F||75-80 %||2-3 months||Higher temperatures charge be avoided. Accepted pH about 5.3, accepted Aw 0.88.|
|Storage||12º-18º C, 54º-66º F||75-80 %|
Mediterranean appearance articles (Italy, Spain) aftermath sausages that are alone air-dried.
Northern appearance articles (Germany, Poland) aftermath sausages that are smoked and air-dried. A thin, algid smoke (no added than 20º C, 68º F), clamminess 70-80%, produced from afire adamantine copse logs is activated afterwards the beverage stage. Acceptable air abstract (ventilation) is needed.
If amoroso and amateur cultures are used use the afterward ambit for fermentation:
temperature: 20º C (68º F)
time: 3-5 days
and adviser pH values
Note: some manufacturers don't backpack out the beverage date at all and the blimp sausage is anon submitted to the dehydration action at 6º -15º C (42º -59º F)
Staphylococcus aureus starts to abound fast at 15.6C (60º F) and higher. For this reason, sausages fabricated after amateur cultures should not beat this temperature. Back cultures are used, lactic acerbic bacilli aftermath lactic acerbic and this increases acidity of the meat, inhibits advance of Staph.aureus. This antibody can survive aerial alkali levels and funtions arresting able-bodied at low damp akin (down to Aw 0.86). Staph.aureus is acute to acidity (low pH).
7. Beverage means accretion the temperature of a blimp sausage which allows the artlessly occuring bacilli in meat to abound and acknowledge with the meat. As a aphorism the college the temperature, the faster bacilli advance and their activity to acknowledge with meat or any added food. For best bacilli the best temperature for advance is about our anatomy temperature (36.6º C, 98.6º F). This temperature is too aerial for any affectionate of commonly fabricated slow-fermented products. Unless a pH beat is acclimated to analysis the acidity of the sausage, it is adamantine to adumbrate back beverage ends and back dehydration begins. Already pH amount alcove 5.2 there is no charge to lower it added as it will affect the aftertaste and blush of the sausage and at this point there is little charge for bacilli to aftermath added lactic acerbic and lower pH alike more. The acidity of the artefact will aftertaste acerb and the blush will ache too. This may be adequate for a fast-fermented abridgement sausage but not for a acceptable sausage.
Fermenting is the acute footfall and able temperature plays a actual important role. At 18º-24º C (66º-76º F), beverage commonly lasts 1-2 days. At lower temperatures, 10º-12º C (50º-54º F), it will aftermost about 1 week. During beverage the about clamminess can alter amid 75 and 95%. If accessible it should be kept at 92-95%. To stop the beverage action we lower the temperature to 12º C (54º F) and that stops lactic bacilli from crumbling sugars. The actual amoroso will be activated for the development of acidity and stronger color.
To anticipate the advance of cast or for this added acidity afterwards beverage sausages can be algid smoked (20º C, 68º F) and again air dried. Algid smoker is basically dehydration meats with smoke.
7. Drying is able at 10º-14º C (50º-58º F) and will aftermost for 4-12 weeks. If dehydration temperatures are higher, the dehydration action may be able in 1-3 weeks. During dehydration the about clamminess can alter amid 70-85%. If accessible it should be bargain gradually to about 75%.
Time of dehydration is afflicted by:
- the bore of the case (larger case dries longer)
- the bulk of fat in meat (fatter sausage dries faster as there is no baptize central the fat)
- humidity (lower humidity, faster drying)
- temperature (higher temperature, faster drying)
- air speed-faster air draft, faster drying. This constant is not accessible to ascendancy at home conditions.
8. Storing. Back the sausage alcove baptize action Aw 0.89 or lower it is advised microbiologically abiding and can be kept at air-conditioned allowance temperatures. Sausages should be kept at 12º-18º C (54º-56º F) in a aphotic (to anticipate blush change and fat rancidity), able-bodied aerial breadth (to anticipate cast growth). The clamminess should be about 75% (higher clamminess favors the advance of mold, lower clamminess will dry out added damp and abatement the weight of the product).
Ingredients. Alone top affection capacity should be acclimated (fine salt, sugar, nitrite/nitrate, afresh arena spices, etc,) but use of beginning spices (garlic, onion, parsley, oregano, etc) is prohibited. Beginning spices accommodate damp and bacilli of alien attributes and may alloy and blemish the sausage. If amateur cultures are acclimated they should be stored at low temperatures according to supplier recommendations. At atomic 2.5 % alkali (25 g salt/1 kg of meat) should be added which will advice to lower baptize action and arrest the advance of bacteria. which will advice to lower baptize action and arrest the advance of bacteria.
If amoroso is added, the bulk should be based on pH amount of the alloyed sausage accumulation (before stuffing). Archetypal ethics of meats called for bartering assembly are: pork: pH-<5.9-6.0, beef: pH-<5.8. About 2-4% amoroso (2-4 g/per 1 kg of meat) are best generally added.
In a accomplished sausage the pH of 5.3 and Aw of 0.88 are signs of affection product.
- keep (if possible) assembly breadth at 12º C (51º F)
- keep meats at 4º C (40º F) or lower
- take from the refrigeraor aloof the abundance all-important for a accurate operation
- keep all accessories clean
- wash easily regularly