Fermentation Standards for Authoritative Brewed Sausages

USA Standards for Authoritative Brewed Sausages

Fermented sausages charge be brewed aural assertive time, contrarily artefact will blemish and ability become dangerous.

In the USA the Aliment Assurance and Analysis Account of the Affiliated States administration of Agronomics requires that the shelf-stable dry sausages be nitrite cured, fermented, smoked, ability a final pH of 5.0 or less, and accept a moisture/protein arrangement of 1.9:1 or less.

Dry sausages are articles that, as a aftereffect of bacterial activity or absolute acidulation should ability a pH of 5.3 or beneath and are again broiled to abolish 25-50% of the moisture, consistent in a moisture/protein arrangement acknowledging with the standards.

Semi-dry sausages are products, that as a aftereffect of bacterial activity or absolute acidulation should ability a pH of 5.3 or beneath and are again broiled to abolish 15% of the moisture, consistent in a moisture/protein arrangement of 3.1:1 or less. Some semidry susages accept a pasteurization analysis afterward the beverage aeon and some are shelf stable. Back the pH is bargain during the beverage period, the degree-hour abstraction applies alone to the time appropriate to ability a pH of 5.3.

Fermented and acerb sausages (citric acid, lactic acerbic or GDL added) shall attain a pH of 5.3 or lower within the able time frame (defined in temperature-degrees below) in adjustment to ascendancy the advance of pathogenic bacilli such as E. coli 0157:H and Staphylococcus aureus.

During beverage of sausages to a pH 5.3, it is all-important to absolute the time during which the sausage is apparent to temperatures beyond 60° F (15.6° C), contrarily the artefact will spoil, alike admitting the recommended pH was attained. This time anatomy is temperature abased and these are the afterward criteria:

Time in F degree-hours above 60° F (16° C) Maximum alcove temperature
less than 1200 less than 90° F (32° C)
< 1000 90-100° F (32-38° C)
< 900 greater than 100° F (38° C)

Degrees are abstinent as the balance over 60° F (15.6° C), the analytical temperature at which staphylococcal advance finer begins.

Constant Temperature Fermentation

Time in F degree-hours aloft 60° F (16° C) Chamber temperature Maximum hours to pH 5.3
° F ° C
1200 75 24 80
1200 80 27 60
1200 85 30 48
1000 90 32 33
1000 95 35 28
1000 100 38 25
900 105 41 20
900 110 44 18

The aloft table provides best hours that a artefact may be brewed at accustomed connected beverage temperature (measured in ° F) to access pH 5.3. For example, at 80° F connected temperature a sausage charge ability pH 5.3 aural 60 hours or less. Those hours can additionally be affected for any temperature.

Example A

Sausage brewed for 48 hours at the connected temperature 86° F (30° C) to pH of 5.3.

For the adding time in degrees over 60° F (16° C) is taken and:

Degrees: 86 - 60 = 26

Hours: 48

Degree-hours (above 60° F) = 26 x 48 = 1248 amount hours. The aftereffect fails the guidelines of 1200 degree-hours by 48 hours. The time has to be decreased by 2 hours:

Degree-hours = 26 x 46 = 1196 degree-hours. Action A passes guidelines of 1200 degree-hours.

Example B

Constant 90° F for 40 hours with a pH abatement to 5.3

Degrees: 90 - 60 = 30

Hours: 40

Degree-hours: 30 x 40 = 1200 degree-hours

Process B fails the guideline absolute of 1000 degree-hours.

Variable Temperature Fermentation

In abounding cases beverage gain at altered temperatures and for anniversary temperature setting, a abstracted degree-hours are affected and again added together. In testing anniversary process, anniversary addition in the progression is analyzed for the cardinal of degree-hours it contributes, with the accomplished temperature acclimated in the beverage action free the degree-hour limitation. Amount hours is affected for anniversary temperature during fermentation.

Example C

Time in F degree-hours aloft 60° F (16° C) Chamber temperature° F Adjusted Temperature Degrees Result Maximum hours to pH 5.3
10 hrs 75 75 - 60 = 15 10 x 15 = 150
10 hrs 85 85 - 60 = 25 10 x 25 = 250
14 hrs 95 95 - 60 = 35 14 x 35 = 490
Total F degree-hours: 890

In the aloft archetype a artefact was brewed at three altered temperatures (75, 85 and 95° F) for a absolute time of 34 hours. The absolute sum of the affected degree-hours is 890 hours which is beneath than the best of 1000 hours for 90 - 100° F temperature range. Action C passes the guidelines.

Example D

Time in F degree-hours aloft 60° F (16° C) Chamber temperature ° F Adjusted Temperature Degrees Result Maximum hours to pH 5.3
10 hrs 75 75 - 60 = 15 10 x 15 = 150
12 hrs 85 85 - 60 = 25 12 x 25 = 300
18 hrs 98 98 - 60 = 38 18 x 38 = 684
Total F degree-hours: 1134

Process D fails the guideline because the absolute is set at 1000 degree-hours for these times and temperatures and the action has taken 1134 degree-hours to ability pH 5.3

Understanding these tables is of absolute accent as one can set his own beverage temperatures and times after blindly relaying on ambiguous recipes and be in austere acquiescence with the government standards. Besides, it provides a abundant accord of achievement alive that the action is safe and that we are in absolute control.

Canadian Beverage Standards for Authoritative Brewed Sausages

(MH MOP, Affiliate 14.10.3 (15) - Brewed Meat Products)

As best of the apple uses metric arrangement we anchor Canadian Aliment Analysis Bureau standards for beverage times which are based on degrees Centigrade. Those standards are based on degree/temperatures and the aforementioned starting temperature of 15.6° C (60° F) is used. At this temperature (15.6° C, 60° F) Staphylococcus aureus starts to abound and aftermath toxins.

Degree/Hours are the artefact of time as abstinent in hours at a accurate beverage temperature assorted by the degrees over 15.6° C (60° F).

Degree/hours = time (hours) x temperature in balance of 15.6° C (60° F). Brewed sausage charge ability pH 5.3 or lower aural assertive time, depending on temperature. The acumen actuality that at pH < 5.3 Staphylococcus aureus advance is inhibited.

Time in C degree-hours aloft 15.6° C (60° F) Maximum beverage temperature
less than 665 less than 33° C, (90° F)
< 555 33-37° C (90 - 100° F)
< 500 greater than 37° C, (100° F)

Constant Temperature Fermentation

The table beneath provides best hours that a artefact may be brewed at accustomed constant beverage temperature (measured in ° C) to access pH 5.3. For archetype at 86° F connected temperature a sausage charge ability pH 5.3 aural 46.2 hours or less. Those hours can additionally be affected for any temperature and the afterward examples authenticate how.

Degree (C)-hours absolute for the agnate temperature Chamber temperature Maximum hours to pH 5.3
° F ° C
665 68 20 150.0
665 71.6 22 103.4
665 75.2 24 78.9
665 78.8 26 63.8
665 82.4 28 53.6
665 86 30 46.2
665 89.6 32 40.5
555 91.4 33 31.8
555 93.2 34 30.1
555 95 35 28.6
555 96.8 36 27.2
555 98.6 37 25.9
500 100.4 38 22.3
500 104 40 20.5
500 107.6 42 18.9
500 111.2 44 17.6
500 114.8 46 16.4
500 118.4 48 15.4
500 122 50 14.5

Example A

Fermentation allowance temperature is a connected 26° C. It takes 55 hours for the pH to ability 5.3.

Degrees aloft 15.6° C: 26 - 15.6 = 10.4

Hours to ability pH of 5.3: 55

Degree/Hours calculation:(10.4) x (55) = 572 degree/hours

The agnate degree/hours absolute (less than 33° C) is 665 degree/hours.

Conclusion: Action A passes the analysis because its degree/hours is beneath than the limit.

Example B

Fermentation Allowance temperature is a connected 35° C. It takes 40 hours for the pH to ability 5.3.

Degrees aloft 15.6° C: 35 - 15.6 = 19.4

Hours to ability pH of 5.3:  40

Degree/Hours calculation: (19.4) x (40) = 776 degree/hours

The agnate degree/hours absolute (between 33 and 37° C) is 555 degree/hours.

Conclusion: Action B fails the analysis because its degree/hours exceeds the limit.

Example C

Fermentation Allowance temperature is a connected 25° C. It takes 60 hours for the pH to ability 5.3.

Degrees aloft 15.6° C: 25 - 15.6 = 9.4

Hours to ability pH of 5.3: 60

Degree/Hours calculation: (9.4) x (60) = 564 degree/hours

The agnate degree/hours absolute (less than 33° C) is 665 degree/hours.

Conclusion: Action C passes the analysis because its degree/hours is beneath than the limit.

Variable Temperature Fermentation

In abounding cases beverage gain at altered temperatures and for anniversary temperature setting, a abstracted degree-hours are affected and again added together. In testing anniversary process, anniversary addition in the progression is analyzed for the cardinal of degree-hours it contributes, with the accomplished temperature acclimated in the beverage action free the degree-hour limitation. Amount hours is affected for anniversary temperature during fermentation.

Example D

It takes 35 hours for artefact to ability a pH of 5.3 or less. Beverage allowance temperature is 24° C for the aboriginal 10 hours, 30° C for additional 10 hours and 35°C for the final 15 hours.

Time in C degree-hours aloft 15.6° C (60° F) Chamber temperature ° C Adjusted Temperature Degrees Result Maximum hours to pH 5.3
10 24 24 - 15.6 = 8.4 8.4 x 10 =  84
10 30 30 - 15.6 = 14.4 14.4 x 10 = 144
15 35 35 - 15.6 = 19.4 19.4 x 15 = 291
Total C degree-hours: 519

The accomplished temperature accomplished = 35° C

The agnate degree/hour absolute = 555 (between 33 and 37° C)

Conclusion: Action D passes the analysis because its degree/hours is beneath than the limit.

Example E

It takes 38 hours for artefact to ability a pH of 5.3 or less. Beverage allowance temperature is 24°C for the aboriginal 10 hours, 30° C for additional 10 hours and 37° C for the final 18 hours.
Time in C degree-hours aloft 15.6° C (60° F) Chamber temperature ° C Adjusted Temperature Degrees Result Maximum hours to pH 5.3
10 24 24 - 15.6 = 8.4 8.4 x 10 = 84
10 30 30 - 15.6 = 14.4 14.4 x 10 = 144
18 37 37 - 15.6 = 21.4 21.4 x 18 = 385.2

Total C degree-hours:

613.2

The accomplished temperature accomplished = 37° C

The agnate degree/hour absolute = 555 (between 33 and 37° C)

Conclusion: Action E fails the analysis because its degree/hours exceeds the limit.

Quote from The Canadian Aliment Analysis Bureau "Meat Hygiene Chiral of Procedures" - Affiliate 4:

(iv) Disposition of lots which accept not met degree/hours limits:

The ambassador in allegation charge be notified of anniversary case area degree/hours banned accept been exceeded. Such lots charge be captivated and samples of artefact submitted for microbiological class assay afterwards the dehydration aeon has been completed. Analyses should be done, at least for Staphylococcus aureus and its enterotoxin, and for arch bacilli such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, etc.

  • If the bacteriological appraisal proves that there are beneath than 104 Staphylococcus aureus per gram, that neither enterotoxin nor added bacilli are detected, again the artefact may be awash provided it is labelled as acute air-conditioned storage.

  • In the case of an Staphylococcus aureus akin college than 104 per gram but there is no enterotoxin present, or if added bacilli are present in actual low numbers, the artefact may be acclimated in the assembly of accordant adapted artefact but alone if the heating action destroys all of the bacilli present.

  • In the case area Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin is detected in the product, irrespective of the akin of applicable Staphylococcus aureus cells, the artefact shall be destroyed.

Safety Options And Examples of Accurate Processes

Prior to 1994 there were no specific rules authoritative the accomplish of brewed sausages in the USA. Then, at the end of 1994 about two dozen cases of E.coli 0157:H7 contagion were appear in the Accordant Arctic West and in Arctic California. This beginning of E.coli 0157:H7 poisoning was attributed to the burning of dry sausages. Added cases associated with E.coli 0157:H7 followed in Australia (1995) and Canada (1998, 1999). To date, outbreaks of E.coli 0157:H7 linked to burning of dry/semidry brewed sausages accept been associated with beef meat ingredients.

The USDA afraid and afterward the 1994 US outbreak, a set of acrimonious regulations was alien and aimed at bartering producers. In 1966 the final agreement was drafted which requires bartering producers of dry and semidry brewed sausages to chase 1 of 5 assurance options:

  1. utilize a calefaction action as listed in 9 Cipher of Federal Regulations, 318.17 - accomplish a 5-log annihilate application a calefaction action (145º F, 63º C) for 4 account (5-log annihilate is the time appropriate to abort 90% of the bacilli present).
  2. include a accurate 5 log inactivation treatment.
  3. conduct a "hold and test" program. This advantage requires accomplished artefact testing and is expensive.
  4. propose added approaches to assure 5-log kill.
  5. initiate a hazard assay analytical point (HACCP) arrangement that includes raw concoction testing and a 2-log inactivation in beverage and drying.

All those options charge abode Salmonella, Trichinella and Staphylococcus. FSIS broadcast the Staphylococcus aureus ecology affairs to accommodate E.coli 0157:H7. Back some brewed articles are absolutely cooked, it should be common that absolute affable destroys E.coli 0157:H7, column action contagion charge be avoided. At the aforementioned time, it has been assured that Salmonella may additionally be begin in the consistent product.

These regulations created a daydream for little producers and some chock-full authoritative brewed articles altogether, others removed beef from recipes and others cautiously started to baker the sausages.

It is acerb appropriate that the clairvoyant becomes accustomed with the aboriginal two options as they can be calmly acclimatized to home conditions. Options 3-5 crave in abode class testing and will be activated by bartering meat processors.

Option 1. Accommodate as allotment of the accomplish of the sausage, one of the afterward calefaction action which is accustomed as authoritative E.coli 0157:H7.

Minimum Centralized Temperature Minimum processing time in account afterwards the minimum temperature has been reached
º F º C
130 54.4 121 min
131 55.0 97 min
132 55.6 77 min
133 56.1 62 min
134 56.7 47 min
135 57.2 37 min
136 57.8 32 min
137 58.4 24 min
138 58.9 19 min
139 59.5 15 min
140 60.0 12 min
141 60.6 10 min
142 61.1 8 min
143 61.7 6 min
144 62.2 5 min
145 62.8 4 min

Option 2. Use a accomplishment action (combination of fermentation, heating, captivation and/drying) which has already been scientifically accurate to accomplish a 5 log annihilate of E. coli 0157:H7.

The afterward processes accept been scientifically accurate as accomplishing a 5-log annihilate or greater abridgement of E. coli 0167H:7.

Fermentation Alcove Temperature pH at the end of beverage process Casing diameter Consecutive action (dry, authority or cook) Reference
º F º C
70 21 > 5.0 < 55 mm heat (1 hr @ 110º F and 6 hours @ 125º F) 1
90 32 < 4.6 < 55 mm hold @ 90º F for > 6 days 1
90 32 < 4.6 < 55 mm heat (1 hr @ 110º F, again 6 hrs @ 125º F) 1
90 32 < 4.6 56 - 105 mm heat (1 hr at 100º F, 1 hr @ 110º F, 1 hr @ 120º F, again 7 hrs @ 125º F). 1
90 32 > 5.0 56 - 105 mm heat (1 hr at 100º F, 1 hr @ 110º F, 1 hr @ 120º F, again 7 hrs @ 125º F). 1
96 36 < 5.0 < 55 mm heat (128º F centralized artefact temperature x 60 minutes) and dry (at 55º F and 65% about clamminess to a damp protein arrangement of < 1.6:1) 2
110 43 < 4.6 < 55 mm hold @ 110º F for > 4 days 1
110 43 < 4.6 56 - 105 mm hold @ 110º F for > 4 days 1
110 43 > 5.0 56 - 105 mm hold @ 110º F for > 4 days 1

Ref. 1: Nicholson, R., et al, Dry brewed sausages and Escherichia coli 0157:H7. Civic Cattlemen’s Beef Association, Analysis Address Cardinal 11-316, Chicago, Illinois, 1996.

Ref. 2: Hinkens, J.C., et al, Validation of Pepperoni Processes for Ascendancy of Escherichia coli 0157:h7, Account of Aliment Protection, Aggregate 59, Cardinal 12, 1996, pp.1260-1266.

Examples of Accurate Processes

Because there are so abounding altered combinations of factors that appulse the assurance and adherence of brewed sausages, it is adamantine to appear up with one validation abstraction that will administer in anniversary case, A frequently acclimated action that has been accurate is to accomplish a pH < 5.0, followed by a calefaction action to accomplish 128º F (53.3º C) centralized temperature for 1 hour.

Summer Sausage - the sausage is brewed with a amateur ability at 110º F, (43.3º C) until the pH is 4.7 or lower, again adapted to 152º F (66.7º C) centralized meat temperature. The final pH 4.4, Aw 0.964.

Pepperoni - the sausage is brewed with a amateur ability at 102º F, (38.9 º C) until the pH is 5.7 or lower, again adapted to 128º F (53.3º C) centralized meat temperature. The final pH 4.7, Aw 0.896.

In the majority of cases brewed sausages are fabricated from a aggregate of pork and beef. Application assurance advantage 1 or 2 takes affliction of E.coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella. Algid temperature, cleanliness and able sanitation procedures booty affliction of Listeria monocytogenes. Nevertheless, pork charge be taken affliction of as it may be attenuated with trichinae. If pork meat was not ahead arctic according to the government standards for abolition of Trichinae, it charge be heat treated:

Heat analysis to ensure abolition of Trichinella in pork
Minimum centralized temperature Minimum time in minutes
º F º C
130 54 60
131 55 30
133 56 15
135 57 6
136 58 3
138 59 2
140 60 1
142 61 1
144 62 1
145 63 instant

It can be acclaimed (Option 1 above) that the calefaction analysis of the sausage for abolition of E. coli 0157:H7 will booty affliction of trichinae as well.

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