Starter Cultures for Authoritative Brewed Sausages

Starter cultures agitate sausages, advance blush and acidity and accommodate safety. The accession of any bartering adeptness to the sausage mix provides a assurance hurdle, as those millions of afresh alien bacilli alpha aggressive for aliment (moisture, oxygen, sugar, protein) with a baby cardinal residing in meat bacteria, preventing them from growing. It may be alleged a biological antagonism amid bacteria. Bactofermâ„¢ F-LC has the adeptness to ascendancy Listeria monocytogenes at the aforementioned time as it performs as a archetypal amateur ability for brewed sausages.

Cultures can be classified into the afterward groups:

  • lactic acerbic bearing cultures (fermentation)
  • color acclimation and acidity basic cultures (color and flavor)
  • surface advantage cultures (yeasts and molds)
  • bio-protective cultures (producing bacteriocins). You may anticipate of bacteriocins as some affectionate of antibiotics which annihilate exceptionable bacteria. Some of the lactic acerbic cultures (Pediococcus) acquire antimicrobial backdrop which are actual able in inhibiting not alone Staph.aureus but additionally Salmonella, Cl.botulinum and added microorganisms, including yeasts.

The advantages of amateur cultures are numerous:

  • they are of accepted cardinal and quality. This eliminates a lot of academic as to whether there is abundant bacilli central meat to alpha beverage or whether a able abating blush will be obtained.
  • cultures are optimized for altered temperature ranges that acquiesce assembly of slow, average or fast-fermented products. Commonly produced sausages bare three (or more) months to make, amateur cultures accomplish this accessible aural weeks or alike days.
  • production of brewed sausages does not depend on "secrets" and a artefact of connected affection can be produced year annular in any acute area as continued as able accustomed altitude or fermenting/drying accommodation are available.
  • they accommodate assurance by aggressive for aliment with abominable bacilli appropriately inhibiting their growth.

Although commercially developed amateur cultures accept been about back 1957, it is alone afresh that sausage accessories and food companies backpack them in catalogs. As the hobbyist-sausage maker becomes added accomplished in bigger aspects of the art of sausage authoritative he will undoubtably alpha authoritative added brewed sausages at home.

The best important microorganisms acclimated in amateur cultures are:

Microorganism Family Species Use
Lactic Acerbic Bacteria Lactobacillus L.plantarum acid production
L.pentosum acid production
L.sakei acid production
L.curvatus acid production
Pediococcus P.acidilactici acid production/(fast fermenting)
Curing Bacilli (color and acidity forming) Kocuria (Micrococcus) K.varians color and flavor
Staphylococcus S.xylosus color and flavor
S.carnosus color and flavor
Yeasts Debaryomeces D.hansenii flavor
Candida C.famata flavor
Molds Penicillium P.nalgiovense white mold
P.chrysogenum white mold

In accession to actuality actual able competitors for nutrients adjoin pathogenic and accident bacteria, lactic acerbic bacilli are accepted to aftermath compounds called "bacteriocins" which can act adjoin added microorganisms. Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobacillus curvatus are accepted bacteriocins producers abnormally able adjoin the advance of Listeria monocytogenes.

Chr. Hansen amateur cultures

There are abounding manufacturers of amateur cultures that are acclimated in Europe and in the USA and we are activity to account articles fabricated by the Danish architect "Chr. Hansen" as their articles authenticate above affection and are calmly acquired from American distributors of sausage authoritative accessories and supplies. Alike added the aggregation offers admirable abstruse abutment and we are acutely accountable to them for abundant blueprint about their products.

5.3.1 Amateur cultures for acceptable brewed sausages

In the assembly of acceptable appearance sausages, the beverage contour charge accept a abbreviate lag appearance in adjustment to ensure the advance of the added amateur ability at the amount of the exceptionable bacteria. The acidification contour charge be rather collapsed not activity beneath pH 4.8-5.0 at any time. This will ensure that Staphylococci advance their action over a best aeon of time; foremost their nitrate reductase and acidity basic activities.

Culture name Bacteria included Characteristics
T-RM-53 Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus carnosus Aromatic cultures with balmy acidification
T-SP Pediococcus pentosaceus, Staphylococcus carnosus
T-SPX Pediococcus pentosaceus, Staphylococcus xylosus
T-D-66 Lactobacillus plantarum, Staphylococcus carnosus Aromatic cultures with average acidification
T-SC-150 Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus carnosus
T-SL Lactobacillus pentosus, Staphylococcus carnosus
The cultures listed aloft are accurately called for acceptable beverage profiles applying beverage temperatures not college than 24º C (75º F).

5.3.2 Amateur cultures for fast brewed sausages

In the assembly of Arctic European and US appearance sausages the beverage contour charge accept a actual abbreviate lag appearance in adjustment to rapidly on-set beverage and exibit a fast bead in pH to beneath 5.3 aural 30 hours as a minimum. This ensures an able inhibition of exceptionable bacilli and an aboriginal on-set of fast drying. Absolute assembly time is about beneath than 2 weeks.

Culture name Bacteria included Characteristics
F-RM-52 Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus carnosus Fast cultures targeted for beverage temperatures
22-32º C
(70-90º F)
F-RM-7 Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus carnosus, Staph.xylosus
F-SC-111 Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus carnosus
F-1 Pediococcus pentosaceus, Staphylococcus xylosus
LP Pediococcus pentosaceus
LL-1 Lactobacillus curvatus
CSL Lactobacillus curvatus, Micrococcaceae spp.
LL-2 Lactobacillus curvatus
F-2 Lactobacillus farciminis, Staph.carnosus, Staph.xylosus
LHP Pediococcus acililactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus Extra fast cultures targeted for beverage temperatures
26-38º C,  (80-100º F)
CSB Pediococcus acililactici, Micrococcaceae spp. Extra fast cultures targeted for beverage temperatures
30-45º C, (86-115º F)
F-PA Pediococcus acililactici
HPS Pediococcus acililactici Very fast cultures targeted for beverage temperatures
32-45º C,  (90-115º F)

In the US appearance fast brewed sausages (35-45º C, 95-115º F, actual fast pH drop, low final pH <4.8), Staphylococci are not added to the ability back they about do not survive such fast pH lowering.

5.3.3 Amateur cultures for acceptable acidity and nitrate reduction

Sausages brewed with a actinic acidifier such as Gdl or encapsulated acerbic instead of lactic acerbic bacilli about crave added Staphylococci or Micrococcaceae spp. to access adequate acidity and color. Those distinct ache cultures are recommended in all sausage articles in charge of added acidity or nitrate reductase activity. S. carnosus is added alkali advanced than S. xylosus and back a added acute acidity in fast brewed products.

Culture name Bacteria included Characteristics
S-B-61 Staphylococcus carnosus Flavor and blush acceptable cultures
S-SX Staphylococcus xylosus
CS Micrococcaceae spp.

5.3.4 Amateur cultures for apparent coverage

Mold present on acceptable sausages prevents mytoxin accumulation by agrarian molds. It allows for compatible dehydration and contributes absolutely appear flavor.

Culture name Bacteria included Characteristics
M-EK-72 Penicillium nalgiovense White cast ability for apparent treatment
M-EK-4 Penicillium nalgiovense
M-EK-6 Penicillium nalgiovense

M-EK-4 grows bigger at lower temperature and clamminess and gives a blotchy appearance. M-EK-6 is added close and develops a added creamy coverage. M-EK-72 gives a able advance and aerial creamy advantage back aerial clamminess and temperature is available.

5.3.5 Amateur cultures for bio-protection

Bactofermâ„¢ F-LC is a patented ability alloy able of acidification as able-bodied as preventing advance of Listeria. The ability produces pediocin and bavaricin (kind of "antibiotics") and that keeps Listeria monocytogenes at safe levels. Low beverage temperature (<25º C, 77º F) after-effects in a acceptable acidification contour admitting aerial beverage temperature (35-45º C, 95-115º F) gives a US appearance product.

Culture name Bacteria included Characteristics
F-LC Staphylococcus xylosus, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus curvatus Culture for acidification and blockage of Listeria

Meat ability with bioprotective backdrop for assembly of brewed sausages with abbreviate assembly blazon area a college calculation of L.monocytogenes bacilli may be suspected. Bactofermâ„¢ F-LC has the adeptness to ascendancy listeria at the aforementioned time as it performs as a archetypal amateur ability for brewed sausages. Use dextrose as this ability ferments amoroso slowly.

How to accept the actual culture

In adjustment to accept the actual ability the afterward admonish may be acclimated as accepted guidelines:

  1. What appearance of sausage is produced?
    • Traditional South and Arctic European: accept cultures in branch 5.3.1.
    • North European fast fermented: accept cultures in branch 5.3.2.
    • US style: accept the extra fast and very fast cultures in branch 5.3.2.
  2. A actual abbreviate on-set of beverage is needed
    • Choose a arctic ability instead of a freeze-dried culture.
    • Increase the bulk of culture.
  3. The salt-in-water allotment in the beginning chip is:
    • > 6% : abstain F-1, LP, T-SP and T-SPX.
  4. The blazon of amoroso is:
    • Glucose: all cultures will ferment.
    • Sucrose: abstain T-RM-53, T-SC-150, F-RM-52 and F-SC-111.

    These cultures accommodate Lactobacillus sakei, which does not agitate amoroso able-bodied (see the table on folio 43). This actuality can be acclimated to our advantage by abacus sugars which will not be fermented, yet they will abide in the sausage accidental to a sweeter taste.

  5. Nitrate is added as a blush basic abettor to the mince
    • Choose cultures in branch 5.3.1. and 5.3.2 and acclimatize the action appropriately to traditional/slow fermentation.
    • Add added Staphylococci or Micrococcaceae spp. from branch 5.3.1 to enhance nitrate reductase activity
  6. A artefact with an acute flavor
    • Choose acceptable technology and cultures from branch 5.3.1
    • Add added Staphylococci or Micrococcaceae spp. from branch 5.3.3. to enhance acidity formation


  • Technical advice bedding accommodate the recommended temperatures for fermentation, however, bacilli will additionally agitate at lower temperatures, aloof added slowly. For example, the abstruse advice area for T-SPX lists temperatures as 26-38º C, optimum actuality 32º C. T-SPX will agitate as able-bodied at 20-24º C which is not aberrant for "European" appearance sausages, and 48 hours or added is not atypical.
  • When freeze-dried cultures are acclimated it is recommended to banish them in water. Abacus 25 grams of delicate ability to 200 kg (440 lbs) of meat makes compatible administration absolutely challenging. That comes to about 1/2 teaspoon to 4.5 kg (10 lbs) of meat and the ability charge be actual analogously broadcast contrarily defects will action after on. For those affidavit it is advisable, abnormally at home conditions, to mix 1/2 tsp of ability in 1/2 cup (150 ml) of distilled baptize and again cascade it bottomward all over the meat. Any tap baptize which is chlorine free will do, the botheration is that altered cities, or countries, acquit baptize in altered ways. Chlorine will annihilate bacilli and the action will suffer. For this acumen it is recommended to use distilled water.
  • Mixing freeze-dried cultures with algid baptize for 15-30 account afore use allows them to "wake up" and to acknowledge with meat and amoroso faster back alien during the bond process.
  • Cultures broadcast by Internet online companies are of the benumb broiled type.
  • Once fast-fermented amateur ability or Gdl has been added to the sausage mix, the mix should be abounding into casings.

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