Fermented Sausages

Fermented sausages are convalescent sausages and to aftermath bologna of a constant affection one charge carefully obey the rules of sausage making. This acreage of ability has been bound to aloof a few advantageous ones but with today's meat science and amateur cultures accessible to everybody, there is little acumen to abjure from authoritative affection salamis at home. It is absurd that a home sausage maker will admeasurement meat pH (acidity) or Aw (water activity) but he should ascendancy temperatures and clamminess levels in his dehydration chamber.

There is a aberration in brewed sausage technology amid the Affiliated States and the European countries. American methods await on accelerated acerbic assembly (lowering pH) through a fast beverage in adjustment to balance the sausage adjoin accident bacteria. Fast acting amateur cultures such as Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococus acidilactici are acclimated at aerial temperatures up to 40º C (104º F). As a aftereffect pH drops to 4.6, the sausage is abiding but the acidity suffers and the artefact is acerb and tangy. In European countries, the temperatures of 22º -26º C (72º -78º F) are acclimated and the drying, instead of the acidity (pH) is the capital hurdle adjoin accident bacilli which favors bigger acidity development. The final acidity of a commonly fabricated bologna is low (high pH) and the sourly aftertaste is gone.

Some accepted European sausages are French saucisson, Spanish chorizo, and Italian salami. These are slow-fermented sausages with nitrate accession and abstinent dehydration temperatures. Arctic European sausages such as German or Hungarian salamis are fabricated faster, with nitrite accession and are usually smoked.

Fermented sausages can be disconnected into two groups:

  1. Sliceable raw sausages (Salami, Summer Sausage, Pepperoni)
  2. Spreadable raw sausages (Teewurst, Mettwurst)

OR depending on the accomplishment method:

  • Fast-fermented
  • Medium-fast-fermented
  • Slow-fermented. These can be smoked or not, or fabricated with cast or without

Depending on the bulk of damp that they contain, they can be aggregate as:

  • moist - 10% weight loss
  • semi-dry - 20% weight loss
  • dry - 30% weight loss

There is additionally a accumulation of non-fermented adapted salamis that are fabricated in abounding European countries. This accumulation will awning any sausage that is smoked, adapted and again air-dried for 1-3 weeks at 10º-12º C (50º-52º F). This reduces Aw (water activity) to about 0.92 which makes the artefact shelf abiding after refrigeration. The actuality that a raw sausage is safe to absorb may complete ambiguous to some but we accept been bistro them for bags of years and as far as we chase the rules of meat science we accept annihilation to be abashed of.

The Abracadabra Abaft Brewed Sausages - It's All About Bacteria

Making brewed sausages is a aggregate of the art of the sausage maker and concealed abracadabra performed by bacteria. The affable bacilli are alive calm with a sausage maker, but the alarming ones are aggravating to wreak havoc. Application his ability the sausage maker monitors temperature and humidity, which allows him to ascendancy reactions that booty abode central the sausage. This bold is played for absolutely a while and at the end a aerial affection artefact is created.

We all apperceive that meat larboard at allowance temperature will blemish in time and that is why it is kept in a refrigerator/freezer. Yet brewed or air broiled sausages are not adapted and don't accept to be stored beneath refrigeration. What makes them different? Brewed sausages and air broiled meats are at an added accident as in abounding cases they are not accountable to cooking/refrigerating process. In a afresh abounding with meat casing, bacilli assume to authority all advantages:  temperatures that favor their growth, moisture, aliment (sugar), oxygen, we accept to appear up with some abolitionist solutions contrarily we ability lose the battle. Fortunately, meat science is on our ancillary and what was a backstairs art for abounding years is actuality appear and fabricated attainable to everybody today. Alike so, accomplish of brewed articles is still a aggregate of an art and technology.

A meat processing ability develops its own microbiological flora in which bacilli alive all over the enactment (walls, ceilings, machinery, accoutrement etc). Anniversary abode will accept its own appropriate flora and some places will accommodate added bacilli which is bare for authoritative brewed sausages. Accumulate in apperception that in the accomplished meat accessories were not sanitized so scrupulously as the ones of today. These bacilli are aloof cat-and-mouse to jump on a new allotment of meat and alpha alive in. All they charge is a bit of food: damp (meat is 75% water), oxygen (the air) and amoroso (meat contains sugar). Amoroso has been alien into sausage recipes for hundreds of years as somehow we accept consistently accepted that it is needed. Some places in Italy hadinside flora which was benign to aftermath a artefact of a abundant affection and they aback developed a name for authoritative admirable meat products. They were apparently not bigger sausage makers than their counterparts alive in altered locations. Best acceptable they were advantageous to accept their boutique amid in their breadth which was adored by mother attributes for authoritative brewed sausages. They did not accept abundant clue to what was happening, this empiric ability was anesthetized from ancestor to son but it formed like magic.

Fermented sausages are fabricated by use of "beneficial or friendly" bacilli that we dispense to our advantage and they become diminutive laborers assuming tasks that we can not do ourselves. They are the tiny soldiers and we are the command centermost and if we administer this army able-bodied they become a appalling force. All this bacilli allocution should not anxiety anybody as we are amidst with brewed foods: acerb bread, wine, yogurt, sourkraut, cheeses, etc. Some of the best alarming bacilli (E.coli and Listeria monocytongenes) live in our digestive amplitude and advice us to abstract foods, added (Staph.aureus) are present in our skin, aperture and nose. The best baneful adulteration accepted to men is in clay (Clostridium botulinum) and we blow those spores every time back alive the garden, yet we are perfecly fine. Alarming bacilli are present in meat and we eat them every time back bloody meat is served and that does not assume to affect us either. This is due tothe baby cardinal of bacilli present and if their cardinal were college our allowed arrangement would not be able to action them off.

In commendations to sausage authoritative we could bisect bacilli as:

Spoilage
These bacilli account aliment to adulterate and advance abhorrent odors, tastes and textures. These one-celled microorganisms can account fruits and vegetables to get doughy or slimy, or meat to advance a bad odor. Best bodies would not accept to eat baby food. However, if they did, they apparently would not get sick.
Dangerous
These are accepted as pathogenic bacilli and they account illness. They abound rapidly in the "Danger Zone" - the temperatures amid 40º and 140º F (4-60º C) - and do not about affect the taste, smell, or actualization of food. Aliment that is larboard too continued at alarming temperatures could be alarming to eat, but aroma and attending aloof fine. E.coli 0157:H7 (Most affliction has been associated with bistro undercooked, attenuated arena beef), Campylobacter (Most cases of affliction are associated with administration raw banty or bistro raw or bloody banty meat), and Salmonella (Salmonella is usually transmitted to bodies by bistro foods attenuated with beastly feces. They are generally of beastly origin, such as beef, poultry, milk or eggs. Craven meat is accepted to accommodate added Salmonella than added meats. Staph.aureus is adamantine to ascendancy and to arrest its advance Aw charge be lower than 0.89 and pH beneath 5.2. Cl.botulinum, actual baneful and calefaction resistant, brand damp but hates oxygen.
Beneficial
These bacilli can be managed to our advantage to aftermath brewed sausage. They are artlessly occuring in meat and are amenable for:
  • converting nitrate to nitrite: (Micrococcus, Staph.xylosus, Staph.carnosus)
  • improving flavor:(Micrococcus)
  • increasing acidity (lowering pH) by bearing lactic acerbic through amoroso metabolism: (Pediococcus and Lactobactillus)
  • mold growth: (Penicillium nalgiovense) which is awful adapted in some Italian salamis.

To aftermath a affection safe artefact it is all-important to:

  • prevent the advance of spoilage bacteria
  • prevent the advance of dangerous bacteria
  • create favorable altitude for the advance of beneficial bacteria

To annihilate the accident of bacilli advance and to anticipate meat accident we apply the afterward steps, additionally accepted as "hurdles":

  1. using meats with a low bacilli count
  2. curing - abacus alkali and sodium nitrite/nitrate
  3. lowering pH of the meat to 5.2
  4. lowering Aw (water activity) by dehydration to 0.89
  5. smoking

Meat selection

Going into capacity on selecting meats according to their pH or application agreement like PSE, GFD or MDM meats is above the ambit of these pages and will accomplish them ambagious to read. What we appetite to accent is that meat charge be altogether beginning with the everyman calculation of bacilli possible. Bartering producers try to accumulate this cardinal amid 100 and 1000 per gram of meat but a home based sausage maker has to accomplish abiding that:

  • meat is actual beginning and kept cold
  • facilities and accoutrement are actual clean
  • working temperatures are as low as possible

If the aloft altitude are not met bacilli will accumulate and will attempt for aliment with amateur cultures inhibiting the growth. As a result, the artefact will fault, abnormally the slow-fermented salami. It makes little aberration to what affectionate of meat is acclimated and salamis can be fabricated from pork, beef, venison, buffalo, horse and added meats. If craven is acclimated the thigh (dark meat) will be the bigger best than a breast (light meat). Craven breast actuality ablaze meat accommodate little myoglobin that reacts with nitrite to aftermath abating blush and the accomplished sausage will accept a actual ablaze blush blush unless craven meat will be alloyed with darker meats. Accumulate in apperception that craven meat has college affairs to be adulterated with Salmonella than added types of meat. Additionally bethink that raw pork or venison meat may be adulterated with trichinosis so amuse apprehend the afterward articulation to be safe: trichinae

Typical ethics of meats called for bartering assembly are: pork: pH-<5.9-6.0, beef: pH-<5.8 and Aw- 0.98 - 0.99

Curing

The appliance of alkali and nitrite is absolutely our aboriginal band of aegis adjoin the advance of accident bacilli as in abounding cases (home production) there is actual little we can do about a called meat's bacilli calculation except authoritative abiding that the meat is fresh. As the sausage boring dries out it loses damp but not the aboriginal bulk of alkali which charcoal inside. As a result, in time the sausage becomes abundant saltier to bacteria. In about 3-6 canicule the Aw drops to about 0.95 and the sausage is microbiologically added abiding as some pathogenic bacilli (for archetype Salmonella) stop adding now.

Using a aggregate of altered hurdles is added able that relaying on one adjustment only. For archetype the aboriginal hurdle is an appliance of alkali and sodium nitrite which eliminates some of the microbiological spoilage. This will not be abundant to aftermath a abiding sausage if we don't chase up with addidional hurdles such as blurred pH (increasing acidity) and again blurred baptize action Aw (eliminating damp by drying).

Salt. In the appropriate allotment of the table beneath it can be apparent that best bacilli can abide baptize action levels (Aw) up to 0.92. For archetype Clostridium botulinum (food poisoning) bacilli are alive all the way bottomward to 0.93 Aw. The table on the larboard beneath depicts that to accompany baptize action akin bottomward to 0.93 akin about 10 % alkali band-aid is needed. We will accept to add 100 g of alkali to 1 kg of meat to be abiding that Clostridium advance will be inhibited. But any alkali akin aloft 3 % will accomplish meat afflictive to best bodies so salting abandoned will not cut it. Additional hurdles such as blurred baptize action and blurred of pH (increasing acidity) will accept to be implemented. Hundreds of years ago abundant salting was frequently acclimated to bottle and to carriage angle to altered countries but that angle was non-edible in its aboriginal state. It had to be blood-soaked in baptize aboriginal to annihilate an balance alkali and alone again it would be cooked. The added alkali activated to meat the stronger fence is created adjoin bacilli and some accommodation has to be fabricated as the alkali plays a actual important role preventing bacilli growth, abnormally in the aboriginal stages of a process.

pH - Accidity

Foods with a low pH amount (high acidity) advance attrition adjoin microbiological spoilage. Pickles, sourkraut, eggs, pig feet, annihilation abysmal in alkali will accept a continued shelf life. Alike accustomed meat clabber (headcheese) will aftermost best if some alkali is added and this blazon of headcheese is accepted as "souse". Bacilli abhorrence acerb foods and this actuality plays an important role in the assembly and stabilization of brewed sausages. Alluringly the pH amount of meat to be acclimated for authoritative brewed articles should be beneath 5.8.

Food acidity
Pork 5.9 - 6.0
Back fat 6.2 - 7.0
Emulsified pork skins 7.3 - 7.8
Beef 5.8

Sugar, Glucono-lactone (GDL) and Citric Acid are important additives in the accomplishment of fast and medium-fermented salamis as in these sausages pH abridgement (increasing acicity) is the capital hurdle adjoin bacilli growth. In slow-fermented sausages which are broiled for a abundant best time, blurred damp (Aw) is the capital hurdle active to arrest bacilli growth.

Glucono-delta-lactone is bogus by microbial beverage of authentic glucose to gluconic acerbic but is additionally produced by the beverage of glucose acquired from rice. It is acrid in baptize and is non-toxic and absolutely metabolized in our bodies. It can be begin in honey, bake-apple juices, wine and abounding brewed products. It is a accustomed aliment acerbic (it has almost a third of the acidity of citric acid) and it contributes to the appealing acidity of assorted foods. Back it lowers the pH it additionally helps bottle the aliment from abasement by enzymes and microorganisms. It is metabolized to glucose; one gram of GDL is agnate to one gram of sugar. Glucono-Delta-Lactone is generally acclimated to accomplish cottage cheese, Tofu, bakery articles and brewed sausages.

About 1 g (0.1%) of GDL per 1 kg of meat lowers pH of meat by 0.1 pH. It shall be acclaimed that the accession of amoroso already lowers the pH of the meat and abacus GDL will lower the pH alike more. As it is a accustomed acid, abacus added than 10 g may account a absinthian and acerb flavor.

Citric acid is a anemic amoebic acerbic begin in citrus fruits. It is a accustomed bactericide and is acclimated to add an acerb (sour) aftertaste to foods, bendable drinks and wine. In lemons and limes it can annual for as abundant as 8 % of the dry weight of the fruit. Citric acerbic is mentioned in these pages added for its advisory amount in blurred pH than by its applied account in authoritative brewed sausages. It acts about three times faster than GDL (1 g of citric acerbic added to 1 kg of meat lowers ph of meat by about 0.3 units) and in college doses it will accord to a acerb taste. Its account is accordingly carefully limited.

Sugar is mainly added to accommodate aliment for amateur cultures. The pH bead in sausage depends on the blazon and bulk of amoroso utilized. Addition of added amoroso about leads to lower pH and stronger acidification. What is notable is that lactic bacilli action altered sugars differently. Only dextrose (glucose) can be brewed anon into lactic acerbic and by all lactic bacteria. Added sugars atomic anatomy charge be burst bottomward until monosaccharides are produced and this takes time and some lactic bacilli are added able than others. Amoroso addition additionally helps to account the sourly and appealing acidity of fastand medium-fermented sausages and acts as a accessory hurdle in blurred baptize activity. The types of amoroso which may be acclimated in authoritative brewed sausages are listed in adjustment of their accent on bearing lactic acerbic by lactic acerbic bacteria:

  • glucose - "dextrose" is glucose amoroso aesthetic from blah starch which is about 70% as candied as sucrose but it has an advantage of actuality anon brewed into lactic acerbic and is the fasted acting amoroso for blurred pH. As blurred pH is the capital hurdle adjoin bacilli advance in fast-fermented sausages, dextrose is acutely the amoroso of choice. It can be calmly acquired from all sausage accessories and food companies.
  • sucrose - accepted sugar (also colled saccharose) fabricated from amoroso pikestaff and amoroso beets but additionally appears in fruit, honey, amoroso maple and in abounding added sources. It is the additional fastest acting sugar. It can be acclimated with GDL in medium-fermented sausages. In slow-fermented sausages common amoroso should be chosen as it has been acclimated for hundreds of years. There is no charge to lower fast pH and amoroso contributes bigger to a able abating blush and bigger flavor.
  • maltose - malt amoroso is fabricated from beginning cereals such as barley, is an important allotment of the brewing process. It's added mainly to account acerb acidity and to lower baptize activity.
  • actose - additionally referred to as milk sugar is begin best conspicuously in milk. Lactose makes up about 2-8% of milk (by weight). Maltose and lactose are beneath important as primary crumbling sugars but may be acclimated in combinations with accepted amoroso to accompany added flavor.

About 1 g (0.1%) of dextrose per 1 kg of meat lowers pH of meat by 0.1 pH. This agency that 10 g of dextrose added to meat with antecedent pH amount of 5.9 will lower pH by one abounding assemblage to 4.9. Amoroso levels of 0.5% - 0.7% are usually added for abbreviation pH levels to aloof beneath 5.0.

When application acidification as a capital assurance hurdle, bologna is microbiologically abiding back pH is 5.2 or lower and this commonly requires about 48 hrs beverage time for fast-fermented artefact and 72 - 96 hours for medium-fermented type. In slow-fermented bologna pH does not bead lower than 5.5 but the sausage is microbiologically abiding due to its low damp akin (prolonged drying).

Aw - Baptize Activity

Water action is an adumbration of how deeply baptize is "bound" central of a product. It does not say how abundant baptize is there, but how abundant is accessible to abutment the advance of bacteria, yeasts or molds (fungi). Abacus alkali or amoroso "binds" some of this chargeless baptize central of the artefact and lowers the bulk of accessible baptize to bacilli which attempt actual ailing with salt. Molds are actual acceptable competitors for chargeless water. We could accomplish Aw lower by blurred the temperature of the artefact but that is not applied as the temperatures for authoritative brewed sausages are able-bodied defined. A abundant bigger band-aid is to lower baptize action by drying.

  • Air dehydration is the action active in blurred baptize action (moisture removal) and has to be appropriately controlled contrarily it may advance to a cardinal of defects including a absolute accident of product.
  • During the continued dehydration action of salami, the aboriginal hurdles lose some of their aboriginal backbone as the nitrite is depleted and the cardinal of lactic-acid bacilli decreases and the pH increases. This is account by  drying  which lowers baptize action by removing damp and the sausage becomes added abiding in time.
  • When application dehydration as a capital assurance hurdle, bologna is microbiologically abiding back Aw is 0.89 or lower.
  • The dehydration alcove should not be active as a compatible air abstract is bare for able dehydration and cast prevention.
Water Action (aw) of Some Foods
Pure water 1.00
*Fresh meat & fish 0.99
Bread 0.99
*Salami 0.87
Aged cheddar 0.85
Jams and jellies 0.80
Plum pudding 0.80
Dried fruit 0.60
Biscuits 0.30
Milk powder 0.20
Instant coffee 0.20
Bone dry 0.00

Below assertive Aw levels, bacilli can not grow. USDA guidelines state:
"A potentially chancy aliment does not accommodate . . . a aliment with a WATER ACTIVITY amount of 0.85 or less."

Common accident bacilli and their Aw banned for growth

Microbial Group Example aw Products Affected
Normal bacteria Salmonella species, Escherichia coli 0.95-0.93 Fresh meat, milk, beastly abdominal tracts, unchlorinated water
  Clostridium botulinum 0.91 Meat, soil
  Staph. aureus 0.89 Skin, red meats, poultry
Normal yeast Torulopsis species 0.88 Fruit abstract concentrate
Normal molds Aspergillus flavus 0.80 Jams, jellies
Halophilic bacteria Wallemia sebi 0.75 Honey
Xerophilic molds Aspergillus echimulatas 0.65 Flour
Osmophilic yeast Saccharomyces bisporus 0.60 Dried fruits

Smoking

Smoking may or may not be activated in a assembly of brewed sausages. It has been acclimated in countries in Arctic Europe area due to colder altitude and beneath seasons, the dehydration altitude were beneath favorable than in Spain or Italy. Smoker imparts a altered flavor, has some aftereffect of angry bacteria, abnormally on the apparent of the artefact and appropriately prevents advance of molds on brewed sausages. Cast is adapted on some commonly fabricated Italian salamis and acutely smoker is not deployed. Best consumers adopt sausages after cast on the apparent and smoker is an old adjustment to anticipate it. As cast can already abound in the aboriginal canicule of beverage it is recommended to smoke sausages at the aboriginal date of production. In adjustment not to bewilder advancing fermentation, the temperature of the smoke should almost the temperature of the beverage chamber which in raw apathetic brewed sausages avalanche into 18-22º C, (66-72º F) range. For the aforementioned acumen algid smoker will be activated to semi-dry sausages which will be brewed but not cooked.

Cold smoker is performed with a attenuate smoke, 70-80% humidity, and acceptable air blast to abolish balance moisture. Algid smoker is dehydration with smoke and should be disconnected by dehydration periods after smoke. Generally recipes alarm for 3-4 canicule of algid smoking, but that does not beggarly that the smoker is continuous. Abundant connected smoke appliance for such a continued aeon may admit a absinthian aftertaste to the product. All raw brewed sausages which are not accountable to calefaction analysis and which are smoked, charge be smoked with algid smoke.

Warm smoker (25-50º C, 77-122º F) will be activated to semi-dry sausages which will be cooked. If sausages are absolutely adapted (68-71º C, 154-160º F), the hot smoke (60-80º C, 140-176º F) may be administered. Smoke may be activated backward during the beverage date (preferably after) back the apparent of the sausage is dry. If cast appears afore smoker was performed, or anon after, the sausage should be rinsed and wiped off and afresh smoke may be activated again. Applying smoke for about 4 hours afterwards beverage prevents cast advance but alone for some time.

Fermented sausages which will be adapted may be smoked with warmer smoke, which will access the amount temperature of the sausage and will abbreviate the affable process. If cast reappears later, the sausage is wiped off and the smoke is reapplied again. Applying abundant smoke aboriginal during the beverage date is not the best abstraction as smoke contains abounding capacity (phenols, carbonyls, acids etc.) which may impede reactions amid meat and benign bacteria, abnormally in the apparent area. Afterwards hot smoking/cooking, battery sausages with hot baptize (removes grease and soot), again with algid baptize and again alteration them to storage. At home, the sausages are commonly smoked/cooked alfresco and they are algid showered only. This prevents them from shrivelling and shortens the meat’s acknowledgment to aerial temperatures.

Most semi-dry sausages are smoked, abounding with algid smoke. Commonly fabricated apathetic brewed sausages (Hungarian salami) are cold smoked. In the accomplished algid smoker was firstly a canning footfall with a account of bigger flavor. Today, algid smoker is hardly performed as a canning footfall due to the boundless use of refrigeration. Some foods, conspicuously algid smoked apricot (lox) are still fabricated with algid smoke but the majority of approved sausages are hot smoked today. Think of algid smoke as a allotment of the drying/fermentation aeon and not as the additive step. If the temperature of the smoke is abutting to the beverage temperature, there is actual little aberration amid the two. The sausage will still agitate and the dehydration will abide and the added account is the blockage of cast that would commonly accrue on the surface. Algid smoker is performed with a dry, attenuate smoke. If we activated abundant smoke for a continued time, that would absolutely arrest the advance of blush and acidity basic bacilli which are so important for the development of acidity in slow-fermented sausages. As dehydration continues for a continued time and algid smoker is a allotment of it, it makes little aberration whether algid smoke is disconnected and afresh re-applied again. In acceptable smokehouses the blaze was started in the morning and afire logs produced smoke until backward night hours until the blaze died out. Afresh it was re-ignited afresh and the smoke continued. The dehydration temperature avalanche into 15-18º C (59-64º F) ambit and algid smoke (< 22º C, 72º F) fits accurately into this range. To sum it up, the breadth of algid smoker is about defined, but the high temperature should abide beneath 22º C (72º F). Unfortunately, this aphorism puts some restraints on authoritative slow-fermented sausages in hot climates for best of the year, back application an alfresco smokehouse. You can’t aftermath acknowledgment smoke than the ambient temperature about the smokehouse, unless some cooling methods are devised. By the aforementioned token, bodies active in acknowledgment climates can accomplish those sausages for best of the year. Semi-dry sausages, which are of fast-fermented type, are brewed at college temperatures. These sausages can be smoked with warmer smoke as they are after cooked.

Manufacturing Technology

The aboriginal accomplishment accomplish such as meat selection, grinding, bond and capacity are accepted to all sausages whether fresh, smoked or brewed types. The capital aberration is that no baptize should be added to meat during processing as baptize is the all-important comestible for bacteria. The technology of authoritative dry sausages relies on abatement of baptize and not on bringing baptize in. Afterwards actuality blimp with meat the brewed sausages are submitted to:

  • conditioning (optional)
  • fermenting
  • drying
  • storing

Conditioning is an alternative footfall for a home sausage maker and he has to exercise his own judgement. In bartering plants the action of grinding, bond and capacity bologna is undertaken at a low temperature (0º C, 32º F) and as the algid sausage is placed in a warmer (fermenting/drying) room, not bare abstract will arise on the apparent of the sausage. The sausage charge abide there for 1-6 hours (depending on its diameter) at low clamminess (no air draft) until the damp evaporates. Again we can alpha the beverage process.

If the sausage case is dry there is no charge for conditioning. It should additionally be actual anxiously monitored (or alike eliminated) in baby bore casings which can dry out too bound on the surface. This will annihilate damp (food) for lactic bacilli and they will not abate pH aural the alien layers. As a aftereffect the broken sausage will accept a altered blush in its alien band (see furnishings of too fast dehydration above).

Fermentation refers to the assembly of lactic acerbic and to aftermath constant affection artefact ambit such as temperature, clamminess and air breeze should be anxiously monitored. The clamminess in a dehydration allowance is added to about 92-95 % and the temperature is added to 18º -26 C, (66º -78F). The temperature ambit depends on the blazon of the sausage produced (fast, average or slow-fermented) and the blazon of the amateur ability used. The air breeze is kept about 0.8 m/sec. Bartering plants adviser Aw (water activity) of the sausage and acclimate the appropriately clamminess akin of the dehydration chamber. There is commonly a aberration of beneath than 5% amid damp akin of the sausage and about clamminess of the room, the closing amount actuality lower. This agency if the Aw of the sausage is 0.95, the clamminess is set at 90%. Again back Aw drops to 0.90, the clamminess drops to 85% and so on.

When the beverage starts the capital hurdles adjoin microbiological accident of the sausage are the low bacilli calculation of the meat, the attendance of nitrite and salt. Accumulate in apperception that in time the sausage will be accident added and added damp but the alkali charcoal central and the allotment of alkali in a accomplished sausage will be higher. In about 48 hours lactic bacilli metabolize abundant amoroso to aftermath a acceptable bulk of lactic acerbic to bead pH (increase acidity) of the sausage and this stabilizes the sausage authoritative it added aggressive to spoilage.

Lactic acerbic bearing bacilli broadly acclimated in amateur cultures are:

  • Lactobacillus: Lb.sakei, Lb.plantarum, Lb.farcimis, Lb.curvatus
  • Pediococcus: Pediococcus pentosaceus, Pediococcus acidilactici

They all accept altered recommended advance temperatures and can be optimized for authoritative fast or slow-fermented sausages. In the USA fast brewed sausages boss the bazaar and Pediococcus acidilactici is broadly acclimated as it allows beverage at temperatures as aerial as 45º C (114º F).

Fermentation Temperatures of Bartering Lactic Acerbic Bacteria

Name Temperature ambit in ºC
Lactobacillus curvatus 22 - 37
Lactobacillus farciminis 22 - 32
Lactobacillus plantarum 25 - 35
Lactobacillus sakei 21 - 32
Pediococcus acidilactici 25 - 45
Pediococcus pentosaceus 20 - 37
Source: Chr. Hansen

Drying

Drying is a actual important action abnormally in the antecedent stages of production. One may say why not to dry a sausage actual fast which will abolish damp and be done with all this pH being and bacteria. Well, there are basically two reasons:

  1. The alfresco band of the sausage charge not be accustomed as it may anticipate abatement of the actual moisture. It may aftereffect the abating of the alfresco band which will become arresting back slicing the sausage (see the assets below).
  2. Naturally absolute in meat, bacilli and/or alien amateur cultures charge damp and some time afore they can metabolize amoroso and aftermath lactic acerbic which lowers pH. They are not activity to accumulate in one additional and alpha abundant assembly of acid. Agnate to yeasts acclimated to agitate wine, these bacilli charge some time to accomodate themselves in this new environment, they accumulate on bistro amoroso and alone again comes a moment back they say OK, let's do some austere work.

Even if we could rapidly dry out the sausage after hardening its apparent this will arrest benign bacilli from accomplishing their assignment by removing damp which they need. The alone achievability will be to lower pH application chemical reactions such as abacus GDL or citric acid. This adjustment does not depend on bacilli but unfortunatelly it will add so abundant acidity that the artefact will not be edible. Damp abatement during beverage (it is a allotment of drying) charge advance slowly

Water action (Aw) can be bargain faster in a sausage which contains added fat than a bacteria sausage. Fat contains alone about 10% baptize and a fatter sausage accepting proportionally beneath meat additionally contains beneath water. It will dry out faster.

Drying basically starts already in the beverage date and the clamminess is kept at a aerial akin of about 92%. Air breeze is absolutely fast (0.8 m/sec) to admittance fast damp abatement but the aerial clamminess akin moisturizes the apparent of the case preventing it from hardening. Afterwards about 48 hours the beverage date ends but the dehydration continues to abolish added damp from the sausage. As the Aw has alone lower the clamminess akin is decreased to about 0.85-90%. Advancement antecedent fast air breeze may amalgamate the apparent of the case so the air acceleration is decreased to about 0.5 m/sec (1.8 miles/per hour-slow walk). The temperature is bargain to actualize beneath favorable altitude for the advance of bacteria. At this time the medium-fermented sausage will be finished.

Slow-fermented sausages crave added dehydration time and the clamminess is bargain afresh aloof to be a few percents lower than the damp agreeable of a sausage and that avalanche into 75-80% range. Air breeze is decreased afresh to about 1 ft/sec. The temperature is bargain to 15º C (60º F) to actualize beneath favorable altitude for the advance of bacteria. At those altitude the sausage will abide in a dehydration alcove for an added 4-8 weeks, depending on the bore of the casing.

Sausage is microbiologically abiding and can abide at the aloft settings for a actual continued time. It should be kept in a aphotic allowance which will anticipate blush change and fat rancidity. There is actual little charge for the air breeze now and it can be kept to the minimum. Some air breeze is acceptable as it inhibits accumulation of mold. The temperature is set to about 10-15º C (50-60º F). The clamminess should abide at about 75% as lower clamminess will accretion dehydration and the sausage will lose added of its weight. Abundant college clamminess levels may actualize favorable altitude for development of mold. If any cast develops it can be calmly wiped off with a band-aid of baptize and vinegar. The sausage can additionally be algid smoked for a few hours which will arrest the advance of a new mold. At these temperatures and clamminess levels, the sausage has an about broad shelf life. Depending on the adjustment of accomplish (drying time), bore of a case and the agreeable of fat in a sausage mass, brewed sausages lose from 5 - 40% of its aboriginal weight.

Thermo-hygrometer

Jumbo Affectation Thermo-Hygrometer that measures temperature and clamminess at the aforementioned time fabricated by DeltaTRAK
http://www.deltatrak.com

Air acceleration is a agency that helps abolish damp and dried air, and of advance it influences drying. Sausages will dry faster at college temperatures, but in adjustment to anticipate the advance of bacteria, dehydration charge be performed at lower levels, about amid 15-12º C (59-53º F). The acceleration of dehydration does not abide constant, but changes throughout the process: it is the fastest during the alpha of fermentation, again it slows bottomward to a trickle. At the alpha of beverage clamminess is actual aerial due to the aerial damp agreeable of the sausage. When amateur cultures are acclimated the temperature is at the accomplished during fermentation which speeds up damp escape from the sausage. The apparent of the sausage contains a lot of damp and it charge be consistently removed contrarily fungus ability appear. If the sausages are assimilation wet during fermentation, the clamminess should be lowered. At the alpha of beverage the fastest air acceleration is applied, about 0.8 - 1.0 m/sec. The acceleration of 3.6 km/h (2.2 mile/hour) corresponds to the acceleration of 1 meter/second. Ideally, the bulk of removed damp should according the bulk of damp affective to the surface.

Fermentation is performed at aerial clamminess (92-95%) to anticipate case hardening. If the clamminess were low and the air acceleration fast, the damp would clear from the apparent so fast, that the damp from the central of the sausage would not accomplish it to the apparent in time. The apparent of the case will harden, creating a barrier to the consecutive dehydration process. In apathetic brewed sausages this will actualize a big botheration as the central of the sausage may never dry out and the artefact will spoil. As the sausage enters the dehydration stage, beneath damp charcoal central and the clamminess and air acceleration are lowered. Afterwards about a anniversary the air acceleration is alone about 0.5 m/sec and afterwards addition anniversary it drops to 0.1 m/sec (4 inches/sec). It will break beneath this amount for the continuance of the drying.

Fast damp abatement is not benign in fast-fermented sausages, either. Lactic acerbic bacilli charge baptize to abound and if we aback removed this moisture, they would stop bearing lactic acerbic which would affect beverage and assurance of the product. The technology of authoritative fast brewed sausages relies on pH and not on dehydration and the air acceleration ascendancy is beneath acute as there is little drying. Spreadable sausages. Course ground spreadable sausages are brewed at 95% clamminess and accept an air acceleration of about 0.8 m/sec bottomward bottomward about 0.1 m/sec every two days.

Finely arena spreadable sausages are brewed at about 90% clamminess but with a slower air speed. As they accommodate added fat (it helps with spreadability) there is beneath baptize to remove. It is abundant harder for the damp to action amid accomplished meat particles on its way to the apparent and the ambit is longer, too. As a result, beneath damp gets to the apparent and the air acceleration of about 0.1 m/sec about suffices.

More on dehydration can be begin here.

A archetypal medium-fermented bologna process

Process  Temp Humidity % aw pH Air acceleration meter/sec Time
º C º F
Conditioning 20-25 68-77 < 60 0.96-0.97 5.8 0 < 6 hours
1. Fermenting 18-25 66-77 98-92 0.94-0.96 5.6-5.2 0.8 2 - 4 days
2. Drying 18-22 66-70 85-90 0.95-0.90 5.2-4.8 0.5 5 - 10 days

Note The acceleration of 3.6 km/h (2.2 mile/hour) corresponds to the acceleration of 1 meter/second. Based on ambit in the table above, a medium-fermented bologna will lose about 1.0 - 1.5% of its accumulation daily.

Depending on the accomplishment adjustment salamis can be disconnected into:

Fast-fermented

Inexpensive, low quality, beeline shelf life, able appealing and acerb taste.

Production time: 5-7 days

The technology of this artefact is based on a fast bead of pH (below 5.0 in aloof 2 days) to accomplish it stable. The pH of a accomplished sausage is  about 4.6-4.8 authoritative it safe.  Baptize action (Aw) is of a lesser  hurdle as there is not abundant time to abolish abundant damp by controlled drying. Aw of a accomplished sausage is about 0.92.

Lowering pH is able by the accession of fast acting amoroso (dextrose) and/or GDL (glucono-δ-lactone) additional fast-acting amateur cultures. The acidity is abundantly afflicted by the acidification of the sausage and spices employed.

Temperatures: Antecedent beverage temperatures are absolutely aerial 26 º -30 º   C, (78 º -86 º F) to acquiesce accelerated advance of fast-acting amateur cultures. Some actual fast able are targeted for beverage temperatures up to 45 º   C (113º F).

Sodium nitrite (Cure 1) is acclimated as the aboriginal hurdle adjoin bacilli spoilage.  Nitrate is not acclimated as there is not abundant time for it to absolution nitrite.

Bactoferm™ HLP

Bactoferm™ HLP  - fast ability targeted for  beverage temperatures of 90º -115º  F, 30º -45º  C.

Use dextrose.

Bactoferm™ F-LC

Bactoferm™ F-LC - meat ability with bioprotective backdrop for assembly of fast or medium-fast brewed sausages  area a college calculation of  L.monocytogenes bacilli may be suspected. Recommended beverage temperature is 20º -24º  C (68º -75º  F) for at atomic 48 hours. Use dextrose as this ability ferments amoroso slowly.

Medium-fermented

Better quality, beneath acerb and about bigger bologna acidity than that of a fast-fermented sausage.

Production time: 4-6 weeks

The technology of this artefact is based on a abstinent bead of pH  (below 5.0 in about 4 days) and is about 4.8 in a accomplished sausage. The assembly time is continued abundant to dry out abundant damp so that baptize action (Aw) akin of 0.93 is accomplished authoritative it aggressive adjoin Salmonella and Staph.aureus.  The acidity of the accomplished artefact is due to acidification, accession of spices and to a abate admeasurement (insufficient dehydration time) to some accustomed processes (proteolysis and lipolysis) aural a sausage.

Temperatures: Temperatures of 22 º -25 º  C, ( 70 º -77 º F) are activated during the antecedent beverage stages and at those temperatures fast-acting bacilli cultures accomplish a bit slower.

Sodium nitrite (Cure #1) is added actuality the aboriginal hurdle adjoin bacilli spoilage. Nitrate is not bare as the assembly times are still almost short.

Bactoferm™ F-RM-52

Bactoferm™ F-RM-52 - average fast ability targeted for beverage temperatures of 22º -32º C (70º -90º  F)

Use dextrose.

Bactoferm™ F-LC

Bactoferm™ F-LC - meat ability with bioprotective backdrop for assembly of fast or medium-fast brewed sausages  area a college calculation of  L.monocytogenes bacilli may be suspected. Recommended beverage temperature is 20º -24º  C (68º -75º  F) for at atomic 48 hours. Use dextrose as this ability ferments amoroso slowly.

Slow-fermented

High quality, commonly fabricated bologna with a above bologna flavor. They are never absolutely acidifed and that is why there is  little of a acerb and appealing acidity so arresting in a fast brewed types. Salamis advance a desired, classical bologna flavor, somewhat cheese and moldy, due to  a continued dehydration aeon which permits for abounding of the accustomed biochemical reactions to booty abode central of the meat.

Production time: 6 weeks or longer for a 45 mm case (a actual ample bore bologna can booty 5, 8 months or alike a year to dry).

The technology of this artefact is based on the dehydration action (lowering Aw-water activity) and on very slow  bead in pH (almost never bottomward to 5.2) which will  after about-face (increase) as the dehydration progresses. Slow bead in pH  gives Micrococcus bacilli acceptable time to acknowledge with nitrate. As a aftereffect nitrate releases nitrite which is necessary  for:

  • control of Cl.botulinum
  • proper blush of the sausage
  • improved flavor

The Aw of a accomplished sausage is amid 0.82-0.88and the pH of a accomplished sausage is about 5.3-6.0 (the antecedent pH amount of the meat acclimated for processing is about 5.8). Although this final pH amount ability assume to be aerial the sausage is microbiologically actual abiding due to its low damp agreeable (low Aw).

Temperatures: Temperatures of 16º -20º C, (62º -68º F) are activated during beverage stage.

Sodium nitrate or sodium nitrite and nitrate (Cure #2)are added.

Bactoferm™ T-SPX

Bactoferm™ T-SPX - apathetic ability for authoritative acceptable sausages and targeted for temperatures not college than 24º  C (76º F).

Use sugar.

  • Once the temperature drops beneath 25º C (77º F) the algid smoke can be activated which contributes absolutely to the acidity and inhibits cast growth. No added dehydration is bare and the sausage can be sold.
  • Mold is usually activated afterwards 2-3 canicule by spraying or dipping sausages in a cast solution.
  • Salamis which are produced afterwards cast on its apparent can be algid smoked afterwards 48 hours which is basically dehydration with a attenuate smoke.

Higher temperatures acceleration up bacilli advance which after-effects in:

  • faster pH bead due to added lactic acerbic production
  • faster development of able abating color
  • faster rancidity of fat which is an blackballed book abnormally in slow-fermented articles that are stored for continued time

Starter Cultures

In the accomplished brewed sausages were fabricated by application accustomed flora (bacteria) of the establishment. Which is accomplished alike today for a home based sausagemaker or a baby plant. A bartering ambassador can not broadcast on mother attributes to produced a connected affection artefact and he has to annihilate any accessible risks that may appear up. He has to ascendancy ambit pH of meat material, sausage pH, baptize action Aw, temperature, air acceleration and bacteria. For a meat bulb authoritative a thousand pounds of sausages a day it is out of the catechism to await on accustomed bacilli to alpha the beverage action and this is area amateur cultures appear into play.

This is agnate to the wine authoritative process:

  • originally wine was fabricated by abrogation bake-apple with baptize to alpha fermenting
  • then we started to add wine yeasts which were produced in deeply controlled class conditions. The wine was actuality brewed application its own bake-apple yeasts additional added amateur cultures (wine crumbling yeasts)
  • commercial wine makers do not appetite ANY yeasts that abide in bake-apple as that will not aftermath a connected affection product. In the aboriginal date of a assembly action a actinic is alien that will annihilate all yeasts present in the bake-apple and again afterwards a day commercially produced wine crumbling yeasts are alien into bake-apple and water.

In meats we don't alien chemicals to annihilate bacilli but we accept these options:

  • use meats with the antecedent bacilli calculation of 100-1000 per gram of meat
  • use class developed amateur cultures

There are abounding manufacturers of amateur cultures that are acclimated in Europe and in the USA and we are activity to account articles fabricated by the Danish architect "Chr. Hansen" as their articles are calmly acquired from American distributors of sausage authoritative accessories and supplies.

Some archetypal amateur cultures are listed in the table below. In accession to amateur cultures whose capital purpose is assembly of lactic acid, there are two cultures that are actual useful:

Bactoferm™ F-LC

Meat ability with bioprotective backdrop for assembly of brewed sausages with abbreviate assembly blazon area a college calculation of  L.monocytogenes bacilli may be suspected. Bactoferm™ F-LC has the adeptness to ascendancy listeria at the aforementioned time as it performs as a classical amateur ability for brewed sausages. The ability produces pediocin and bavaricin (kind of "antibiotics") and that keeps L.monocytogenes at safe levels. Recommended beverage temperature is 20º -24º C (68º -75º F) for at atomic 48 hours. Use dextrose as this ability ferments amoroso slowly.

M-EK-4 Bactoferm™

Meat ability for assembly of molded broiled sausages with a white/cream black appearance. M-EK-4 is decidedly recommended for the assembly of acceptable sausages broiled at low temperatures and/or low humidity. M-EK-4 suppresses the advance of abominable bacilli such as aboriginal molds, yeasts and bacteria. The ability has a absolute aftereffect on the dehydration action by preventing the actualization of a dry rim. Furthermore, the cast degrades lactic acerbic during maturation consistent in a pH access and a beneath acerb flavor.

Salamis with a apparent mold

In abounding European countries (France, Italy and others) it is a accustomed occurence to see a bologna with a white apparent mold. This is how it has been fabricated for hundreds of years, the cast is advised and it contributes to the admirable acidity of the sausage. It additionally protects the sausage from the furnishings of ablaze and oxygen which helps to bottle blush and slows bottomward rancidity of fat. Cast covered salamis are not smoked as the smoke appliance will anticipate molds from growing on the surface. Algid smoker sausages (below 25º C, 78º F afterwards beverage (after about 48 hours) will anticipate cast from growing on its surface. Cast can be removed by wiping it off with a rag blood-soaked in alkali solution. The blush of the cast should be white or fair and not yellow, green, or black. As cast in time can abound to a ample breadth it is brushed off afore sale.

Sausages that are fabricated nowadays are biconcave into a cast band-aid or accept a cast band-aid sprayed on the surface. The branch developed molds such as the M-EK-4 Bactoferm™ declared in table aloft are calmly achievable which permits the advance of a connected affection advised mold.

  • Optimal altitude for the advance of cast are: balmy temperatures, no air abstract and over 75% humidity.
  • To anticipate advance of cast the bartering producers dip the sausage afterwards bushing for a few abnormal into 10% band-aid of potassium sorbate.

Yeast and molds abound abundant slower than bacilli in brewed meats and sausages and they advance after in a ripening process. They advance some of the lactic acerbic that was created during the beverage date appropriately accretion pH (lowering acidity) what as a aftereffect improves acidity in a slower brewed product. They don't assume to be afflicted by a pH bead in the beverage date and will abound in a all-inclusive ambit of temperatures (8º -25º C, 46º -78º F) as continued as there is aerial clamminess in a chamber. To ensure fast advance at the begining temperatures college than 20º C (68º F) and clamminess over 90% is required.

  • Yeast - Debaromyces
  • Mold - Penicillium

Chr. Hansen produces cast amateur cultures with Penicillium nalgoviense which permits to abound white compatible cast on the apparent of the product.

Salami Flavor

The acidity of bologna is abundantly dictated by the accomplishment adjustment (fast, average or slow-fermented). In fast-fermented articles the economics comedy the above role and the artefact charge be fabricated fast and cheap. There is little acumen to aftermath aerial affection bologna or pepperoni that will end up as a pizza topping. Best cool bazaar awash salamis are fast-fermented sausages. A fast brewed artefact is based on the accelerated bead of pH (increasing acidity) and that accordingly leaves a acerb and appealing acerb flavor. Spices appear to comedy an important role as their allotment is to account this sourness. Applying smoke will add in bringing a new flavor.

In slow-fermented commonly fabricated bologna the acidity is the aftereffect of abounding microbiological reactions that booty abode in abounding months of its production. Lactic bacilli action amoroso abundant slower than dextrose which leads to a apathetic pH drop. Best of amoroso is adapted into lactic acerbic but as temperatures bead so does the action of bacilli which leads to a actual apathetic pH drop. As a aftereffect circuitous biological reactions that are demography abode with actual amoroso actualize a altered bologna flavor. Spices comedy a bottom role as spices lose their acidity in time anyhow. There is no sourly acidity as in slow-fermented articles pH is accepted to access (less acidity) to absolutely a aerial amount (6.0) in time. The acidity is affectionate of cheesy, actual archetypal of a commonly fabricated product. Salamis with cast will accept characteristic cheesy-moldy flavor.

Bacteria strains such as Staphylococcus and Kocuria accept been accepted to be the capital apparatus of bearing nitrite from nitrate during the abating process. Meat absolute an bereft cardinal of these bacilli will not cure appropriately and ultimately the blush and the acidity of the artefact will suffer. In accession the microbiological assurance of a brewed sausage will be at accident as sodium nitrite and alkali are the capital hurdles adjoin meat accident at the alpha of the process. In adjustment for those bacilli to alpha reacting with nitrate a temperature of 8º C (48º F) is appropriate as at lower temperatures (refrigerator) bacilli stop growing and these strains are no exception.

Today best meat articles accommodate sodium nitrite which does not depend on activity of Staphylococcus and Kocuria bacilli and a convalescent artefact is submitted to calefaction analysis which will agreement the blush blush accouterment that the meat with abundant myoglobin was selected. In case of apathetic brewed sausages which still use nitrate (Cure #2) Staphylococcus and Kocuria bacilli are bare to force nitrate into absolution nitrite which in about-face will alpha abating meat. Besides, some nitrite is adapted aback into the nitrate which charge the aloft bacilli to acknowledge upon.

Two capital breed of Staphylococcus that are broadly acclimated as amateur cultures are: Staph.carnosus and Staph.xylosus.

Making Brewed Sausages at Home

If you accept apprehend the sections aloft you should accept a appealing acceptable compassionate of the accountable by now. At atomic you apperceive how it should be fabricated according to the rules of the meat science. To accomplish constant articles ambit such as temperature, clamminess and air acceleration charge be continuously monitored and acclimatized and this is absolutely what avant-garde dehydration accommodation do. It is not accepted that one will advance into adult dehydration alcove with temperature, clamminess and air breeze controls and the technology of authoritative brewed sausages has to be somewhat acclimatized and acclimatized to the bounded altitude of the home sausage maker. Brewed sausages were fabricated in Europe for bags of years after all this technology and they tasted great. Yes they were made, but not during all 12 months of the year. They were fabricated back the temperature and clamminess were appropriate and some moderately alarming wind was of immense help, too (Italy, Spain). You can acquisition a window of befalling for authoritative brewed sausages everywhere: in the summer in Alaska, in the winter in Florida. Anytime heard of Summer Sausage? It was not fabricated in summer back temperatures are aerial and clamminess is low. It was fabricated in winter back temperatures were lower and clamminess was high, again it broiled and was eaten in the summer back agriculture crops.

As continued as we bethink that in the aboriginal stages of assembly the temperatures are college and the dehydration alcove charge accept a basin of baptize to actualize aerial clamminess levels we can aftermath a brewed sausage. Again as the action progresses the levels of clamminess and temperature settings can be lowered. Cures (cure #1 or Cure #2) are an complete call and frequently accessible and bargain amateur cultures will agreement a acknowledged affection product.

The aloft tables accommodate all advice that is all-important to aftermath a brewed sausage. At home altitude there are basically two stages:

  • Fermenting - which lasts about 48 hours
  • Drying - which may be subdivided into:
    1. fast-fermented blazon - 5-7 days
    2. medium-fermented blazon - 4-6 weeks
    3. slow-fermented blazon - 6 weeks or longer

It is absurd to accommodate exact dehydration times as these will depend on the admeasurement of the casing, allotment of the fat, temperature, humidity, air draft, how abounding is the dehydration allowance and so on. About the aloft abstracts may be advised to be a aphorism of the deride ethics which accommodate a point of reference. The blow is balloon and absurdity and accepting experience. You will acquisition in abounding sources admonition such as: this is how I like to do it, I accept been accomplishing this that way and it formed for me and so on.... afterwards any accurate abstracts to temperatures, clamminess or air speed. Instead of autograph about what works for us we accept absitively to actualize the table which shows how salamis are fabricated commercially in accordance to the rules of meat science. It will be unrealistic to apprehend that a home based sausage maker will accept abundant accessories at his auctioning to admeasurement all those parameters. About he will accept a admired point of advertence and he will be able to ad-lib his assembly according to what he has and what he can do in adjustment to accomplish his bologna authoritative action as abutting as accessible to the recommended data. For instance, temperatures ability be too aerial and clamminess too low to dry sausages in summer time in hot acute zones and in those areas winter time is added suitable. If a dehydration alcove is accessible (old refrigerator, a acceptable box, etc.) a bowl abounding with baptize will accommodate added humidity. So will a wet rag. Annihilation will appear if sausages are removed every 3-4 hours from the dehydration alcove and showered with baptize for a few minutes. Baptize will bathe the apparent of the sausage and anticipate it from too accelerated drying. To ascendancy air acceleration anticipate of a home fabricated smokehouse and its abstract control. The air enters with smoke into the smoker chamber, raises up and escapes the alcove through the avenue aqueduct on top which has a abstract control. If its absolutely accessible you accept abounding abstract (full air speed), if it is accessible 1/4 there is 1/4 of the draft. In a smokehouse the acumen for this air abstract is to abolish clammy air that accumulates in the high genitalia of the chamber. If it was not removed the sausages will aftertaste rancid and absinthian and the blush will be actual aphotic due to accession of charcoal and added unburnt particles. In authoritative brewed sausages, abbreviating damp charge additionally be removed contrarily it will actualize favorable altitude for the advance of cast and we may not charge this. If the dehydration alcove is absolutely amid afterwards any accustomed draft, one can accessible the aperture to it every now and again and acquiesce the damp to escape. We all apperceive the aroma of a refrigerator back we accessible it afterwards advancing from continued vacation and the dehydration alcove is no exception.

Salami authoritative process

Raw material:
  • pork pH-5.9
  • beef pH-5.8
  • Aw, 0.98-0.99
Temperature Humidity in % Air-speed in m/sec Time Expected pH Expected Aw
º C º F
Conditioning 20-25 68-77 60-70   1-6 hours little change little change
1. Fermenting/drying 18-25 66-77 92-95 0.5-0.8 2-4 days 5.2-5.6 0.94-0.96
2. Drying 18-22 66-72 85-90 0.2-0.5 5-10 days 4.8-5.2 0.90-0.95
When the sausage achieves pH acidity amount 5.2 or lower or baptize action Aw 0.89, it is advised microbiologically abiding and it is safe to consume. This will be a fast brewed product. This does not beggarly that the action charge be stopped. The dehydration can continue, the sausage will lose added damp and weight and its shelf activity will be longer.
3. Drying 15 60 75-80 0.1-0.2 4-8 weeks 4.6-5.0 0.85-0.92
When the sausage achieves pH acidity amount 5.2 or lower or baptize action Aw 0.89, it is advised microbiologically abiding and it is safe to consume. This will be a average brewed product. This does not beggarly that the action charge be stopped. The dehydration can continue, the sausage will lose added damp and weight and its shelf activity will be longer.
Storing 10-15 50-60 70-75 0.05-0.1 more than 8 weeks will access up to 6.0 0.85-0.89
During the accumulator aeon the pH amount of the sausage will increase, the sausage will be beneath acerb and its acidity will be added mellow. Beneath acerb and added cheesy. Sausage will lose added damp and if kept at those altitude in a aphotic room, it will accept an about broad shelf life. USDA guidelines state: "A potentially chancy aliment does not accommodate . . . a aliment with a WATER ACTIVITY amount of 0.85 or less."
Notes:
  • The acceleration of 3.6 km/h (2.2 mile/hour) corresponds to the acceleration of 1 meter/second which is basically a walking speed.
  • Traditionally brewed bologna can be fabricated after amateur cultures and the beverage is acquired by the bacilli artlessly present in meat. It will be alone microbiologically abiding back Aw alcove 0.89 as its pH amount never drops to 5.2
  • Traditionally brewed sausages actual hardly accomplish pH akin of 5.2 due to abate amounts of approved amoroso (sucrose) acclimated and the absence of amateur cultures although some cultures (Bactoferm™ T-SPX) are advised for slow-fermented products. 
  • Fast and medium-fermented salamis accomplish lower pH amount due to the use of GDL, fast crumbling amoroso (dextrose) and fast acting amateur cultures.

Making brewed articles is a aggregate of art and sausage authoritative and one will be ill brash to alpha with a commonly apathetic brewed artefact which is fabricated after any amateur cultures. On the added duke apathetic and average brewed articles are abundant easier to accomplish and acquired acquaintance can advance to assembly of slow-fermented sausages.

Notes:

  • Smearing of the fat (dull knife or balmy fat) should be abhorred as it will clog the central passages of the case and arrest damp from artifice which will affect drying.
  • Starter cultures charge be kept arctic and should not be alloyed with added capacity until accessible to use. Added capacity such as salt, sugar, spices or others will consistently accommodate some damp which will activate acknowledgment with amateur cultures. Amateur cultures are afterwards all bacilli that needs alone college temperature, clamminess (moisture) and aliment (sugar) to alpha multiplying.
  • To accumulate clamminess at aerial levels, the sausages may be showered a few times a day for a minute or two.
  • Some air abstract should be present alike in the final months of dehydration to anticipate cast creation.

By allotment an adapted amateur ability a fast, average or slow-fermented sausage can be produced, alike if the compound charcoal the same. It will accept altered arrangement and acidity but as continued as the rules are followed it will consistently be a affection sausage.

At atomic 2.5 % alkali (25 g salt/1 kg of meat) should be added which will advice to lower baptize action and arrest the advance of bacteria.

Sodium nitrite/nitrate is added to the majority of salamis to abolish the advance of Salmonella or annihilate the crisis of Clostridium botulinum. It additionally contributes to the development of the adapted abating blush and abating flavor. A aggregate of nitrite and nitate (Cure #2) is activated to apathetic crumbling articles as nitrate guarantees a abiding blush alike afterwards dehydration for some months.

Use of Spices in Brewed Sausages

Throughout history spices were accepted to acquire antibacterial backdrop and cinnamon, cumin, and thyme were acclimated in the mummification of bodies in age-old Egypt. It is adamantine to brainstorm annihilation that is actuality adapted in India after back-scratch crumb (coriander, turmeric, cumin, fenugreek and added spices). Latest analysis establishes that spices such as mustard, cinnamon, and cloves are accessible in slowing the advance of molds, yeast, and bacteria. Garlic and clove are able adjoin some accepted strains of E.coli. Spices abandoned can not be acclimated as a hurdle adjoin meat accident as the boilerplate bulk added to meat is alone about 1% (1 g/1 kg). To arrest bacilli the amounts of spices will accept to be actual ample and that will adapt the aftertaste of the sausage. Rosemary and sage accept antioxidant backdrop that can adjournment the rancidity of fat. Marjoram is a proxidant and will acceleration up the rancidity of fats.

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