Meat Abating Methods

There are three methods of abating meats:

Curing methods

Salt Abating

Salting meat after nitrite is hardly performed today. In some abortive countries the angle is still heavily absolute for preservation. Aback fat or any blubbery trimmings do not accommodate myoglobin and can not acknowledge with nitrite. For this acumen they may be absolute only.

San Daniele and Parma Italian dry hams are fabricated after nitrate. In all, a actual few articles are fabricated or preserved by salting alone.

When alkali is added to meat it provides us with the afterward benefits:

  • Adds acidity (feels affable back activated amid 2-3%).
  • Prevents microbial growth.
  • Increases baptize retention, and meat and fat binding.

Salt does not annihilate bacteria, it artlessly prevents or slows bottomward their development. To be able the alkali absorption has to be 10% or higher. Alkali absorption of 6% prevents Clostridium botulinum spores from acceptable toxins admitting they may become alive back smoker at low temperatures. Abacus sodium nitrite (Cure #1) eliminates that danger. The two concrete reactions that booty abode during salting are circulation and baptize binding, and no actinic reactions are present. Salting is the fastest adjustment of abating as it rapidly removes baptize from central of the meat. The alkali migrates central of the meat and the baptize campaign to the alfresco apparent of the meat and artlessly leaks out. This gives us a bifold benefit:

  • Less baptize in meat
  • More alkali in meat

Both factors actualize beneath favorable altitude for the development of bacteria. Today the articles that will be absolute alone are pork aback fat and some hams that will be air-dried for a continued time.

Dry Curing

Dry abating has been performed the aforementioned way back the 13 th century. It is basically the salting adjustment with the accession of nitrates. Afore smoker the alkali with nitrates had to be rubbed in ham or added meat cuts which was a boxy job because it could alone be done by hand. Again pork pieces were arranged in tubs banishment the meat and base alkali as deeply as accessible and larboard there for bent time sometimes alike up up to 6 weeks. The alkali was dehydrating the meat and cartoon the damp out of it. All that aqueous would artlessly cesspool abroad through the aperture in the basal of the tub. This arising played important allotment in the action as the damp was demography with it minute meat particles and blood. Those in about-face ability blemish the alkali if accustomed aerial abundant temperatures. If a alkali is kept at refrigerator temperatures the arising aperture is not bare and the aqueous can sit at the basal of the vessel. Some of the aqueous will be re-absorbed by the meat itself. Of advance if the artefact is to be air-dried the aqueous is blackballed as it will apathetic bottomward the dehydration process.

The dry abating adjustment is best acclimated for all types of sausages, bacon, and hams that will be air-dried. In best cases afterwards curing, meats go for smoking, again for air dehydration and there is no affable involved. In accession to alkali and Nitrates, the capacity such as sugar, coriander, thyme, and juniper are generally added to the dry mix.

The dry cure adjustment is characterized by fast activity and it can be acclimated beneath added temperature variations than added abating methods. There is a greater accident of meat weight due to the accident of water, artefact will accept added arresting flavor, will be saltier and will be bigger preserved. Acceptable for meats that will not be adapted but smoked and air- dryed or aloof air-dryed. It is the best abating adjustment for bodies active in hot altitude or accepting no refrigeration.

Ham assembly in XVIII Century  Virginia. Photos address The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.

Salting ham

A admixture of 25 lbs of salt, 2 lbs of amber amoroso and 2 oz of potassium nitrate is rubbed into the beginning ham.

Curing meat

Hams are deeply arranged in alkali and placed in a abating tub for 6 weeks. Holes in the basal of the tub accustomed the acrid baptize to cesspool out. Again followed 2 weeks of smoking.

Often meat was rubbed agilely with alkali but added alkali was activated about basic by abrasion it harder with thumbs. Again meats were placed on a agee table to cesspool from 6 to 12 hours. One batter of alkali (1 %) was acclimated for anniversary 100 lbs of meat. Meat advised that way has beneath adventitious of abasement as abundant of the damp and added claret will cesspool away. Again meat was done briefly with algid baptize to abolish any traces of the blood-soaked aqueous and a dry mix was activated to its clammy apparent what helped to deliquesce and authority the cure. The dry cure adjustment is the fastest adjustment as it uses annihilation but alkali (100 %) wherein in wet cure the best alkali agreeable is 26 % . At that point alkali becomes saturated and no added alkali can be captivated by water. Dry cure can be acclimated beneath added temperature variations (warmer climate-no refrigeration) and there is beneath achievability it may go sour. The purpose of air dehydration is to abolish damp from the meat and the dry cure actuality mostly alkali is not bringing any added damp into the meat.

The wet cure (water, alkali and nitrite) will be a bad best for abating of air broiled articles as it will accommodate added damp (water) instead of removing it. In best cases afterwards dry curing, meats go for smoking, again for air dehydration and there is no affable involved. In accession to alkali and nitrates, the capacity like amoroso (not recommended back temperatures are high), coriander, thyme, and juniper are generally added to the dry mix. There is some certain accident of accustomed juices and meat protein back salting or dry abating adjustment is acclimated (less than 1%). Absolute allotment will abide in alkali for a few weeks or will adhere in the air alike best (loosing added moisture) and the absent baptize will not be replaced. The final artefact will counterbalance 15-20% beneath than the weight of the aboriginal meat. In case of byproducts like liver, heart, kidneys and affection the weight accident can be as ample as 34-40%.

How Dry Abating Works

Salt that is rubbed in into the apparent of the meat starts brief central and at the aforementioned time baptize that is present central of the meat starts to biking appear outside. You may say that the baptize is aperture out of the meat. This action is actual fast during aboriginal 7 canicule and again slows bottomward as there is added alkali central of the meat and beneath water. Best dry convalescent articles will be smoked and/or air broiled and this is a acceptable book as a lot of damp has been alone and there is abate achievability of meat abasement during added air-drying.

Eventually the calm is accomplished aback all alkali is central of the meat and no added baptize accident occurs. Abominably some meat abstract (protein, minerals) was absent calm with baptize and of advance the meat allotment absent some of its aboriginal weight. Alkali which is already central of the meat penetrates meat fibers and they swell, become beyond and are able to acquire and authority baptize central of them. Anticipate of them like if they were a blot that aback wet can authority absolutely a lot of water. In best cases the blood-soaked aqueous artlessly drains abroad and there is an assured weight loss. If the aforementioned meats meats were arranged in a closed tub after arising holes, some of the accustomed alkali that was created will be captivated aback into the meat. Due to added alkali agreeable the artefact may feel acrid what is account somewhat by abacus amoroso into the mixture.

Loss of weight (water) during dry curing

dry curing loss

How To Apply

To agreement connected accumulation of alkali and ceaseless abating of the meat, the dry abating is performed in a few stages.

  1. The capacity should be thoroughly alloyed and disconnected into two according parts. The aboriginal allotment of the mix should be rubbed in into the meat advantageous added absorption to cartilage areas which like to blemish first. An added bulk of alkali should be supplied there by banishment it with the thumbs. During this antecedent salting of the meat, it is important to thoroughly awning all apparent of the meat allotment with salt, because the aerial alkali akin and the colder temperatures are the alone agency of aegis adjoin the advance of accident bacteria.

    Then the meats would be arranged deeply in a alembic with beyond pieces like hams on the basal and abate pieces on the top so that anniversary allotment will absorb its shape. The meats are arranged bark down. Aqueous fatigued drom the meat will accrue on the basal of the alembic and if the holes were fabricated it would cesspool off. This aqueous can break in alembic accouterment the abating is done at low temperatures (35-40 F). Best of the aqueous will be re-absorbed by the meat itself.

  2. The actual allotment of the mix should be disconnected in two parts, application anniversary allotment for the two afterward saltings. The additional cure shall be activated after absolutely like the one earlier, advantageous appropriate absorption to the bones. Back repacking abode the pieces in altered adjustment from the one they originally occupied.
  3. The third cure shall be activated as the second.

For best after-effects it is recommended to repack meats afresh on the twenty aboriginal day. The acumen cure is activated in stages is that we appetite to accept connected accumulation of alkali and nitrate to abide the process. Afterwards abating is complete, the meat pieces charge be rinsed in beginning baptize to abolish any crystallized alkali that accumulates on the apparent what would anticipate acknowledged smoke assimilation (some articles may not be smoked at all). Again the meats are afraid or placed on wire cobweb for draining. Abundance meat at a refrigerator temperature of 38° – 40° F (3° - 4° C).

Basic rules for applying dry cure

When abating times are short, up to 14 days, use Cure #1 according to the accepted absolute of: 1 oz. cure for 25 lbs. of meat. For best times use Cure #2 that contains Nitrate which will accumulate on absolution nitrite for a continued time. The bulk of dry mix bare to cure 25 lbs. of meat by the dry cure adjustment back authoritative dry (fermented) sausages is:

  • 2 oz. Cure #2
  • 12 oz. canning salt
  • 6 oz. dextrose or amber sugar
  • seasonings

Dry Abating Times

The breadth of abating depends actual abundant on the admeasurement of the meat and its composition. Blubbery tissues and bark actualize a cogent barrier to a abating solution. Back abating a ample meat piece, for archetype a ham, a abating band-aid will alpha biting on the angular ancillary of the meat and again will advance added advanced appear the cartilage and the bark side. There will be actual little assimilation on the blubbery bark side. It seems analytic that removing the fat band of the bark will acceleration up curing. It absolutely will, but it is not such a acceptable idea. The fat acts as a barrier not alone to abating but to smoker and abatement of damp as well. Afterwards smoker the ham ability be broiled or poached in hot water. Actuality the fat acting as a barrier will anticipate a accident of attenuated protein and meat juices that will try to drift into the water. For added compatible curing, meats should be overhauled (re-arranged) on the third and tenth canicule of the cure. The abating time will depend on the admeasurement of the meat allotment and your own alternative for a able or agilely absolute product.

A basal aphorism is 2 canicule per batter for the baby cuts and 3 canicule per batter for hams and shoulders. For example, a six batter bacon would crave about 12 canicule in cure, while a 12 batter ham would charge 36 days. Accession blueprint calls for 7 canicule of abating per inch of thickness. A ham belief 12-14 lbs. and 5 inches blubbery through the thickest allotment will be convalescent 5 x 7 = 35 days. Abate pieces should end up on top so they can be taken out aboriginal acceptance beyond pieces to abide curing. Contrarily they may aftertaste too salty. Abate meat cuts like bacon, butt, and loins can be convalescent with a dry admixture based on the afterward blueprint for 100 lbs. of meat: 4 lbs. salt, 1.5 lbs. sugar, 2 oz. Saltpeter (1 lb. Cure #2). Bisect the admixture into three according parts. Administer the aboriginal one-third and leave the meat to cure. Afterwards three canicule check and rub in the additional part. Afterwards three added canicule administer the aftermost third of the admixture and acquiesce to cure for about 12 days. Generally, the accession of spices occurs afterwards the aftermost re-salting has been completed.

Rub with ½ cure, check afterwards 1 week, administer ¼ of the mix, check afterwards 2 weeks, administer actual ¼ mixture.

Wet Curing

The wet abating method, sometimes alleged alkali (salt and water), candied bind (sugar added), or captivation abating has been commonly acclimated for beyond cuts of meat like butts or hams that were smoked. It is able by agreement meats in a wet abating band-aid (water, salt, nitrites, sometimes sugar). Amoroso is added alone back abating at refrigerator temperatures, contrarily it may activate beverage and alpha to blemish the meat.

The wet abating is a traditional, time arresting method, activity out of appearance as the ample hams had to be abysmal for up to 6 weeks and angry over on a approved basis. With such a continued abating time there is a crisis of meat abasement from aural the centermost area the cartilage is located. During that time we accept to beat up the cream and any fungus that ability accumulate on the surface, as that ability be a antecedent of contamination. Best abate meat cuts crave about 3-14 canicule of abating time at 40° F (4° C). It is still a accomplished abating adjustment for abate cuts of meat that will accept a beneath abating time.

The meats accept to be angry over on a circadian base and prevented from pond up to the surface. Afterwards abating is complete, the meat pieces charge be rinsed in beginning baptize and placed on wire cobweb for draining. We do accomplish assertive weight accretion back abating meats, alike after chemicals, but this is not the acumen why a home sausage maker cures meats. Meats are convalescent to aftermath a top affection product. The weight accretion is as follows:

  • Canadian bacon 3-4%
  • Bacon 3%
  • Ham 4%

Slower than dry curing, slight meat weight accretion (significant weight accretion in commercially fabricated articles due to ample bulk of pumped into meat abating solutions), artefact beneath acrid but with beneath shelf life, acidity of the artefact milder and added palatable. Nowadays added accepted adjustment of the two.

The wet abating adjustment or captivation abating has been commonly acclimated for beyond cuts of meat like butts or hams that were smoked. It is able by agreement meats in a wet abating band-aid (water, salt, nitrites, sugar). Amoroso is added alone back abating at refrigerator temperatures, contrarily it will activate beverage and alpha abasement the meat. Wet abating is acclimated to bottle meat, add abating acidity and accommodate blush blush to the meat. Afterwards wet abating the meats are commonly smoked.

Most meat cuts crave about 3 – 14 canicule of abating time alike at 40° F (4° C). It is still a accomplished abating adjustment for abate cuts of meat that will accept a beneath abating time. To administer analogously the abating band-aid at the bisected abating time the meats accept to be angry over (top pieces placed at the basal and carnality versa) and prevented from pond up to the surface. The acumen actuality that alkali has a addiction to bore to the basal and nitrates/nitrites like to bathe up to the top. The abating band-aid is not compatible and it has to be agitated already in a while contrarily meats will not be convalescent evenly. During that time we accept to beat up the cream and any fungus that ability accumulate on the surface, as that ability be a antecedent of contamination.

Using this method, ample pieces of meat like hams charge to abide in band-aid for up to 6 weeks and with such a continued abating time there is a crisis of meat abasement from aural the centermost area the cartilage is located. That is why it is abundant safer to abbreviate abating times by applying aggregate abating (stitch pumping additional wet cure) back abating ample pieces of meat.

There are two means of applying wet cure into meats

  1. Immersing meat in abating band-aid (water, alkali and nitrite)
  2. Spray pumping meats with all-overs and abating solution

How Wet Abating Works

During wet abating meat articles apart some of its baptize and soluable abstracts (meat juice, minerals) but are accepting salt.There are basically two audible phases:

Salt migrates from the band-aid appear central of the meat and the baptize from the central of the meat campaign to the band-aid that is is outside. This action is actual fast during aboriginal 7 days, again circulation slows bottomward as the alkali burden becomes alike on both abandon of the meat and assuredly stops. During this appearance there is a net meat accident due to the accident of baptize and additionally some certain accident of accustomed juices and meat protein which is abundant abate than if a salting or dry abating adjustment were used. This accident of meat juices and protein amounts to about 1% back continued appellation abating hams.

In a additional appearance alkali which is already central of the meat penetrates meat fibres and they swell, become beyond and are able to acquire and authority baptize central of them. Anticipate of them like if they were a blot that aback wet can authority absolutely a lot of water. Now the band-aid is abounding aback into the meat creating a net accretion of meat that will depend on the absolute time of curing, bulk of fat in the meat, alkali absorption and adjustment of curing. Beneath accustomed altitude this accretion happens alone afterwards 30 canicule of curing.

Although the barter of alkali and baptize stops back alkali burden is counterbalanced on both abandon of the meat, about the actinic and biological reactions abide (nitrate realease nitrite which reacts with myoglobin and produces blush color).The convalescent meat in a way matures (ages) and develops a appropriate balm abnormally apparent in case of a convalescent ham.

wet curing loss

When meat is chopped or arena and again extracted with water, some of the proteins will dissolve. Back the meat is larboard in ample pieces, beneath protein will dissolve. The meat which is covered by fat and bark over allotment of its apparent (hams), the losses to alkali will be reduced. The protein losses will depend on backbone of the alkali (stronger the brine, the abate the losses) and the time of abating and will alter from 1 to 4 percent of aboriginal weight. That happens in brines beneath 20 percent alkali absorption (brines weaker than 75 degrees). These losses are actual abominable as they affect the final acidity of the meat.

Note: all concentrations of alkali acquiesce the meat to booty up salt. The best bulk of baptize was captivated by the meats back their alkali agreeable had accomplished 4 to 5 per cent.

Soaking

The purpose of assimilation is to accommodate added alike alkali administration central of the meat. A ample allotment of meat for archetype a ham or a barbecue (shoulder) alike back absolutely convalescent will not accept a compatible alkali distribution. The acumen actuality is that a ham on one ancillary has a band of fat that lies amid the bark and the angular meat underneath. The bark and the accompanied fat band creates a cogent barrier to alkali assimilation and the abating band-aid will access ham from its face and from its bacteria side. Afterwards abating there will be moore alkali abreast the angular face than abreast the fat area. The afterward assets are based on abstracts from the book “Meat Through The Microscope”, C. Robert Moulton, Ph.D and W. Lee Lewis, Ph.D, The University of Chicago.

partially cured ham
fully cured ham
curing and soaking ham

When absorbed in algid beginning baptize the alkali which is present in a ham will alpha travelling outwards (sort of about-face curing). The alfresco areas (especially the surface) accommodate added alkali and accept the beeline ambit to water. Those areas will apart alkali aboriginal and the alkali administration central of the meat will be added uniform. Assimilation can be performed alike on a absolutely smoked and adapted sausage that was abundantly oversalted. Abode it in a algid baptize (refrigerator) brief and you ability save your product.

Note back pumping meat with a alkali injector we accomplish added compatible alkali administration and assimilation can be eliminated. We can anon inject alkali beneath the fat band to acceleration up the abating process.

Today the meat canning plays the accessory role and for the best tasting artefact it is appropriate to absorb meats in active water. If not application active baptize the alembic area meats are blood-soaked should accept the baptize replaced every 30 minutes. The acumen for assimilation is the abatement of balance alkali that commonly accumulates on the apparent of the meats and added compatible administration of the alkali central of the meat. The recommended times are: 2 hours for the hams and amateur and 30 account for the bacon. Some sources ask for 3 account of assimilation for anniversary day of curing. Accumulate in apperception that assimilation will abolish about 10 % of the abating capacity that were alien into the meat. The apparent of the meat should be done with baptize to abolish any crystals of the alkali what will anticipate able smoke penetration. Again the meats are afraid or placed on wire cobweb and accustomed to dribble for 24 hours afore smoking. Abundance meat at a refrigerator temperature of 38° – 40° F (3° - 4° C).

Pumping of the meat and again immersing it in a band-aid allows added alike alkali administration inside. The alkali administration central of the ham will added adjust during smoker process. If meats are pumped aboriginal and absorbed in a alkali or submitted to a massaging action there is no charge for soaking.

Draining

Rinsing/soaking should be done in algid active baptize 62º – 68º F (17º-20º C) and the time will depend on the admeasurement of the meat pieces and the absolute time of curing. If afterwards abating meats are not activity to be soaked, they should be briefly rinsed with balmy baptize 106º – 114º F (43º-45ºC) to abolish any alkali crystals and again afraid in able-bodied ventillated breadth for drying. The apparent of the meat charge be dry or feel broken-down afore it can abide for smoking. Air fan can acceleration up dehydration action or meat can dry out in a smoker by applying some heat. The temperature should not be college than 120º F (48º C) and all drafts shall be opened as we appetite breeze of the beginning air. That wil commonly booty about a day.

Meat Pumping

Commercial plants add phosphates to wet cure band-aid which authority added amounts of baptize and that of advance amounts to college profits. Baptize application chemicals that are acclimated in bartering applications can be actual able and application the accompaniment of the art pumping machines allows for pumping up to 80 % of abating band-aid into meat in affiliation to the aboriginal weight. There are aerial technology companies that aftermath abnormally able mixtures that are acclimated for that purpose.

Brine pump

Brine pump and manually operated injector.

Brine injector

Inject Brilliant BI-152 Automated Bind Injector. For injecting bone-in or boneless meat, poultry, or fish.

Pumping beef

Roast beef

Pumping steaks

Steaks

Pumping loins

Pork loins

Pumping brisket

Brisket

Pumping turkey

Turkey

Pumping chickens

Chickens

Stitch pumping altered meats. Photos address Koch Equipment, Kansas City, MO

Needle pumping has abounding advantages:

  • Curing band-aid can be absolutely alien area bare best (bone areas and blubbery tissues)
  • Curing times become shorter
  • Spices and appropriate flavorings can be injected central of the meat

A home sausage maker can use a chiral meat syringe to accomplish the aforementioned action admitting on a somewhat bound scale. The syringe holds 4 oz. of alkali and has a 5 3/8” continued aggravate with 12 tiny holes about its surface. Abate syringes for accepted kitchen use can be begin in every above accessories store. They are acclimated for pumping meats with marinade.

Photographs address The SausageMaker, Buffalo, N.Y.

There are two methods of aggravate pumping:

Artery pumping
a wet cure adjustment area a continued needle, affiliated with a corrupt to a pump, will inject a alkali band-aid into the ham’s artery. It is a actual able way of distributing the abating band-aid analogously and bound through the meat. The arterial claret arrangement of the beastly becomes a activity for the alkali administration throughout the ham. A leg will accept to be anxiously and professionally butchered so the avenue will abide intact. There is of advance no achievability of a cartilage abatement above-mentioned to pumping. It was a actual accepted adjustment during Russia’s assurance in the Aboriginal Apple War (1914-1918) and during the Additional Apple War (1941-1945). Afterwards the annihilate the pigs were anon artery-pumped. The band-aid pumped out all claret from the beastly again remained in its system.This adjustment requires some analysis ability on a allotment of the abettor but is still too apathetic for present meat processors and is activity out of fashion.
Stitch pumping
a wet cure adjustment area the abating band-aid is activated beneath burden to the apparent of a ham, bacon, base etc., with a coffer of all-overs affiliated to a pump. The band-aid comes from the pump and its burden is carefully controlled contrarily it will actualize breach and centralized accident to the meat fibers. The actuality that you accept pumped up your meat does not beggarly it is already cured. It either has to go into a aerialist to be massaged for a day or two or it has to be absorbed in the actual band-aid for assigned time. Actual generally it was pumped with a stronger band-aid (75 %) and absorbed in a weaker alkali (70 %).

A home sausage maker can use a chiral meat syringe to accomplish the aforementioned action admitting on a somewhat bound scale. The syringe holds 4 oz of brine and has a 5 3/8” continued aggravate with 12 tiny holes about its surface. There is no charge to anguish about burden which is connected and low abundant not to actualize any accident to meat fibers. For home sausage maker the capital advantage of the pumping meat is the adeptness to absolute abating band-aid about the basic of the ham what will actual finer anticipate cartilage souring.

Stitch pumping admitting actual able do not acquiesce for an alike administration of the alkali and it should be followed by either:

  • Massaging in tumblers (commercial applications)
  • Immersion curing
  • Dry curing

How Abundant To Pump

The bulk of band-aid that will be alien into the meat depends abundantly on the absolute time of curing:

  • Fast abating (7-14 days) requires about 10-12% of alkali in affiliation to the aboriginal weight of the meat (green weight)
  • Slow abating (30-50 days) requires about 5-6% of alkali in affiliation to the aboriginal weight of the meat (green weight

Keep in apperception that pumping meat introduces damp into the artefact which is abominable in dry meats or back the capital purpose of abating is meat preservation. In these cases dry abating adjustment is added suitable. Hams are about pumped with a band-aid of agnate or greater backbone than the band-aid that will awning them. That allows abating capacity to assignment accompanying on central and to access the meat from outside. The final aftereffect will be added compatible alkali administration and a faster abating time.

How and Area to Pump

Large pieces of meat like hams accept addiction to alpha abasement aural from the cartilage breadth what is accepted as “bone taint” which can appear afterwards 30 days. Causeless to say college than recommended temperatures will abundantly acceleration up the process. Absolute addition of a alkali into those areas will acquiesce for actual abating to booty abode appropriately attention meat from accident and abbreviation absolute abating time. Bone-sour is added accepted back ample pieces of meat like hams and picnics, are convalescent in a brine. Alkali present in alkali takes about alert as continued to access the ham as does alkali from the dry cure. For this acumen ample cuts of meat should consistently be pumped with a abating band-aid and again absorbed in alkali or rubbed with dry mix on alfresco and larboard for curing. Pumping the meat and applying dry mix on alfresco is the fastest abating method.

curing ham

For hams and amateur that counterbalance 10 – 15 lbs use 3 pumpfuls of alkali (1-shank, 2-knuckle collective and 3-aitch bone). For hams and amateur that counterbalance added than 15 lbs use 5 pumpfulls.

curing picnic

After meat is pumped with the solution, it is placed in tubs up to 3’ aerial and advised bottomward from the top so the pieces will abide absolutely absorbed in brine.

Wet Abating - Aerosol Pumping Followed by Captivation Curing

Curing solution: salt, baptize and nitrates/nitrites

Product Brine Backbone in SALometer degrees % (weight) of pumped band-aid in affiliation to the aboriginal meat weight (100 kg) Number of injections Amount of Alkali in % affiliation to the weight of the meat (100 kg) Curing Time in Days
Smoked and Above Ham 65 - 85 6 – 7 (6-7 kg) 7 - 9 40 If Avenue 6-10 or if Stitch 8-12
Smoked and Above Butt 65 - 85 6 - 7 5 - 7 40 If Avenue 5-8 or if Stitch 6-10
Smoked Canadian Bacon, Smoked Loin 55 - 65 2 - 3 2 - 3 40 5 - 7
Boiled Beef Ham 65 – 85 (3% amoroso added to alkali in affiliation to salt) 6 – 7 2 - 4 30 8 - 10
Smoked Bacon 65 – 85 5 – 6 4 – 5 30 4 - 6
Smoked Jowls 65 – 85 2 –3 4 – 5 30 4 - 6

Overhauling

  • Overhauling agency alternate re-arrangement of meat pieces that are central of a abating container. It is done for the afterward reasons:
  • There will be beneath abating in areas area meats blow anniversary other. Undercured meat areas may accept altered adumbration of blush color.
  • The abating band-aid will accept sections of altered density-salt will bore to the bottom, nitrate will bathe up to the top
  • When meats are placed on top of anniversary added the top layers accumulation burden to the basal area and the meat juices will aperture out into the brine. That is why meats should not be ample college than 3 feet.

The backbone of the band-aid will change in time, alkali ability achieve on the bottom, nitrites ability be on top, some meat juices will access the brine, meat pieces may blow anniversary added etc. To acquiesce all meats to cure evenly, the band-aid should be remixed and agitated. A aphorism of deride is to check the meat every seventh day for three weeks. A abate allotment that will be convalescent for 10 canicule only, should be overhauled afterwards 5 days. The easiest way is to use two abstracted containers and about-face the meats from one alembic to the other. The pieces that were on top are now on the basal and carnality verse. Again the alkali can be afflicted and caked over meat pieces in a new container. If alone one alembic is acclimated the meat should be removed, the alkali stirred, and the meat reinserted in a altered order.

Combination Curing

Combining the dry cure adjustment with aerosol pumping.
A ham is aerosol pumped with a abating band-aid and the alfresco is rubbed with dry mix (salt and nitrite). That will acquiesce the central abating band-aid to access the meat added analogously while the alfresco dry mix band-aid will be affective appear the inside.
Combining the wet cure adjustment with aerosol pumping (artery or stitch).
A meat cut is aerosol pumped with a abating band-aid and again captivated in a container. The meat pieces should be absolutely covered and advised bottomward to anticipate pieces from ascent to the surface. They charge additionally be angry over at atomic already every day for the continuance of curing. The college alkali allotment in a abating band-aid the faster the abating process. Back 26% of alkali is added to water, the band-aid becomes saturated and added alkali will not be captivated by the water. The alkali will achieve on the basal of the container. Back angrily abrading alkali into the meat we are introducing 100% of salt. This agency that the dry abating adjustment is abundant faster as it introduces added salt. Addition account is that no damp is added into the meat, on the contrary, alkali will draw baptize out of meat creating beneath favorable altitude for bacilli to grow. For these affidavit commonly fabricated hams relied on the dry cure method.

Combination abating is actual accepted adjustment as it acutely cuts bottomward processing time. Beneath there are some archetypal abating times that apply aggregate curing. Dry mix (salt and nitrates/nitrites) are rubbed into meat pieces, again placed on top of anniversary added (up to 3’ high) in a container. Added mix is added amid layers and the the meat is larboard to cure for 24 hours. Again alembic is abounding with a wet abating band-aid and anchored from the top for accurate pieces to be absolutely absorbed in brine.

Combination Abating – Dry Adjustment followed by Wet Method

Curing ingredients: salt, nitrates/nitrites and water

Product Brine Backbone in SALometer degrees % (weight) of dry admixture in affiliation to aboriginal meat weight (100 kg) Dry Abating Time in Hours Amount of Alkali in % affiliation to the weight of the meat (100 kg) Curing Time in Alkali (in Days) Draining Time in Days
Smoked Loin 50 - 55 2 (2 kg) 24 - 36 30 (30 liters) 5 - 8 1
Smoked Butt 50 – 55 2 – 6 24 – 36 30 6 – 10 1
Boiled Butt 50 – 55 2 – 6 24 – 36 30 6 - 10 1
Smoked Bacon 65 – 85 3 24 – 36 40 7 – 10 1 - 2
Smoked Jowls 65 – 85 3 24 – 36 40 7 – 10 1 - 2

Commercial Abating Methods

Meat plants can not acquiesce the affluence of the acceptable wet abating as it requires accumulator amplitude and added time. The action they active consists of pumping meats with aggravate injectors with distinctively formulated and generally patented formulas, again massaging the meats in tumblers to administer the abating band-aid added evenly. Aggravate injectors pump the meat beneath burden with a able band-aid that contains aggregate that is accustomed by law to accomplish the action the beeline and best economical. Some methods acquiesce pumping meat with a abating band-aid and diminutive genitalia of meat of any kind. Massaging is an added abating footfall active by bartering plants. It involves agreement pieces of meat that are pumped with abating band-aid into a meat tumbler. This is a apparatus with a alternating boom and the meat pieces will be bouncing about its mowing walls accouterment alike bigger alkali administration central of the meat. The meat does not accept to be absorbed in alkali at all. Application aerial assembly stitch pumping machines and a tumbler, a ham can be accessible for the smoker in 24 hours. You can beating your meat by hitting it with a bankrupt anchor all around, you could alike wrapp up meat with a anhydrate and hit it for a few account with a abundant object. You could additionally buy a baby accommodation aerialist machine.

Meat plants don’t use these machines to advance quality, they use them to assignment faster and save money. A pork base larboard for 10 canicule in a alkali band-aid will be altogether convalescent in every area, article a aggravate injector and aerialist will not do. There is a absolute to how abounding holes can be fabricated in meat with all-overs as they accident the arrangement of the meat. These machines are alone able if acclimated with chemicals that will advice to cure meat faster. By injecting the abating band-aid anon into the meat we acceleration up the process.

The aerialist helps to administer the band-aid analogously central but nitrite needs time to actualize a blush color. Alkali additionally needs time to cure meat but there is no accessible way to apprehension how able-bodied alkali did its job. If abating time is too short, some areas of the ample allotment of meat will about-face grey, some agilely blush and some will be red-pink. That is why we use cure accelerators so they can cure and blush meat at a abundant faster rate. Application aerial assembly stitch pumping machines and a aerialist a ham can be accessible for the smoker in 24 hours.

Wiltshire Curing

Wiltshire abating was an English adjustment of abating accomplished hog abandon in brine. Abating bacterial flora was anxiously maintained in the aforementioned catchbasin for abounding years. This of advance appropriate class testing. Added alkali and Nitrate was added back bare and the bacilli active in alkali kept reacting with Nitrate. The acknowledgment produced nitrite which kept on abating meat. In a afresh formulated alkali there may not be abundant bacilli to catechumen Nitrate into nitrite and as a aftereffect the abating may be poor. For this acumen the use of Nitrate is about beat today.

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