Making Brine

There isn’t a accepted alkali and every book and compound provides customized instructions. Alkali of altered body and weight (table salt, Morton® Kosher, Diamond® Kosher) is abstinent with altered instruments such as spoons, cups, ounces, pounds, kilograms - baptize abstinent by cups, quarts, gallons, liters… a absolute blend and chaos.

The capital advantage of authoritative your own alkali is that you accept absolute ascendancy over it and there is no academic involved. Firstly, it makes no faculty at all to allocution about abating time if we don’t specify the backbone of a brine. We can mix ½ cup alkali with one quart of baptize or we can add 5 cups alkali into one gallon of baptize and it is accessible that abating times will be altered admitting both brines will do the job. To adapt your own alkali in a able way and not to depend blindly on bags of recipes you charge two things:

1. Buy a alkali tester. They are so bargain that there is no alibi for not accepting one. The salinometer or salometer (brinometer) consists of a float with a axis attached, apparent in degrees. The apparatus will float at its accomplished akin in a saturated brine, and will apprehend 100 degrees (26.4 % alkali solution). This is accepted as a absolutely saturated alkali at 60° F. In weaker brines the axis will float at lower levels and the account will be lower. With no alkali present the account will be 0. To accomplish alkali put some baptize one into a acceptable container, add some salt, admit a alkali tester and apprehend the scale. Appetite a stronger solution: add added salt. Charge weaker brine: add added water, it is that simple. Accumulate in apperception that a salinometer’s calibration measures the body of a band-aid absolute alkali and water. Already you add added capacity the salinometer will admeasurement the body of a band-aid and not the salinity of the brine.

Brine testers

2. Apprentice how to use alkali tables.

The advantages of application tables are many:

  • you can account the backbone of any compound you appear across
  • you can acquisition out how abundant alkali to add to 1 gallon of baptize to actualize a accurate alkali strength
  • you don’t accept to anguish whether you use table salt, Morton® adequate alkali or Diamond® adequate salt. Alkali Tables are abnormally advantageous back authoritative a ample aggregate of brine.

Sodium Chloride (Salt) Alkali Tables for Alkali at 60 F (15° C) in US Gallons

Salometer Degrees Percent of Sodium Chloride (Salt) by Weight Pounds of Alkali per Gallon of Water Pounds of Alkali per Gallon of Brine Pounds of Baptize per Gallon of Brine
0 0.000 0.000 0.000 8.328
1 0.264 0.022 0.022 8.323
2 0.526 0.044 0.044 8.317
3 0.792 0.066 0.066 8.307
4 1.056 0.089 0.089 8.298
5 1.320 0.111 0.111 8.292
6 1.584 0.134 0.133 8.286
7 1.848 0.157 0.156 8.280
8 2.112 0.180 0.178 8.274
9 2.376 0.203 0.201 8.268
10 2.640 0.226 0.224 8.262
11 2.903 0.249 0.247 8.256
12 3.167 0.272 0.270 8.250
13 3.431 0.296 0.293 8.239
14 3.695 0.320 0.316 8.229
15 3.959 0.343 0.339 8.222
16 4.223 0.367 0.362 8.216
17 4.487 0.391 0.386 8.209
18 4.751 0.415 0.409 8.202
19 5.015 0.440 0.433 8.195
20 5.279 0.464 0.456 8.188
21 5.543 0.489 0.480 8.181
22 5.807 0.513 0.504 8.174
23 6.071 0.538 0.528 8.167
24 6.335 0.563 0.552 8.159
25 6.599 0.588 0.576 8.152
26 6.863 0.614 0.600 8.144
27 7.127 0.639 0.624 8.137
28 7.391 0.665 0.649 8.129
29 7.655 0.690 0.673 8.121
30 7.919 0.716 0.698 8.113
31 8.162 0.742 0.722 8.105
32 8.446 0.768 0.747 8.097
33 8.710 0.795 0.772 8.089
34 8.974 0.821 0.797 8.081
35 9.238 0.848 0.822 8.073
36 9.502 0.874 0.847 8.064
37 9.766 0.901 0.872 8.056
38 10.030 0.928 0.897 8.047
39 10.294 0.956 0.922 8.038
40 10.558 0.983 0.948 8.030
41 10.822 1.011 0.973 8.021
42 11.086 1.038 0.999 8.012
43 11.350 1.066 1.025 8.003
44 11.614 1.094 1.050 7.994
45 11.878 1.123 1.076 7.985
46 12.142 1.151 1.102 7.975
47 12.406 1.179 1.128 7.966
48 12.670 1.208 1.154 7.957
49 12.934 1.237 1.181 7.947
50 13.198 1.266 1.207 7.937
51 13.461 1.295 1.233 7.928
52 13.725 1.325 1.260 7.918
53 13.989 1.355 1.286 7.908
54 14.253 1.384 1.313 7.898
55 14.517 1.414 1.340 7.888
56 14.781 1.444 1.368 7.878
57 15.045 1.475 1.393 7.867
58 15.309 1.505 1.420 7.857
59 15.573 1.536 1.447 7.847
60 15.837 1.567 1.475 7.836
61 16.101 1.598 1.502 7.826
62 16.365 1.630 1.529 7.815
63 16.629 1.661 1.557 7.804
64 16.893 1.693 1.584 7.793
65 17.157 1.725 1.612 7.782
66 17.421 1.757 1.639 7.771
67 17.685 1.789 1.668 7.764
68 17.949 1.822 1.697 7.756
69 18.213 1.854 1.725 7.744
70 18.477 1.887 1.753 7.733
71 18.740 1.921 1.781 7.721
72 19.004 1.954 1.809 7.710
73 19.268 1.988 1.837 7.698
74 19.532 2.021 1.866 7.686
75 19.796 2.056 1.895 7.678
76 20.060 2.090 1.925 7.669
77 20.324 2.124 1.953 7.657
78 20.588 2.159 1.982 7.645
79 20.852 2.194 2.011 7.633
80 21.116 2.229 2.040 7.621
81 21.380 2.265 2.069 7.608
82 21.644 2.300 2.098 7.596
83 21.908 2.336 2.128 7.586
84 22.172 2.372 2.159 7.577
85 22.436 2.409 2.188 7.584
86 22.700 2.446 2.217 7.551
87 22.964 2.482 2.248 7.542
88 23.228 2.520 2.279 7.532
89 23.492 2.557 2.309 7.519
90 23.756 2.595 2.338 7.505
91 24.019 2.633 2.368 7.492
92 24.283 2.671 2.398 7.479
93 24.547 2.709 2.430 7.468
94 24.811 2.748 2.461 7.458
95 25.075 2.787 2.491 7.444
96 25.339 2.826 2.522 7.430
97 25.603 2.866 2.552 7.416
98 25.867 2.908 2.570 7.409
99 26.131 2.948 2.616 7.394
99.6 26.289 2.970 2.634 7.385
100 26.395 2.986 2.647 7.380

Seawater contains about 3.695 % of alkali which corresponds to 14 degrees salometer.

At 100 degrees alkali is absolutely saturated and contains 26.395 % of salt. 1 US gallon of baptize weighs 8.33 lbs

1 US gallon = 3.8 liters = 3.8 kilograms

If you appear beyond a compound and you would like to actuate what is the backbone of the brine, aloof chase two steps:

  1. Find percent of alkali by weight in the solution: weight of salt/(weight of alkali additional weight of water), again accumulate the aftereffect by 100%
  2. Look up the tables and acquisition the agnate salometer degree

For example, let’s acquisition the backbone of the alkali that is mentioned in abounding recipes and calls for abacus 1 batter of alkali to 1 gallon of baptize (8.33 pounds)

% alkali by weight = 1lb of salt/1 lb of alkali 8.33 lbs (1 gallon) of baptize = 1/9.33 = 0.1071

0.1071 x 100 % = 10.71 % of salt

Looking in the table at Cavalcade 2 (percent sodium chloride by weight) we can see that 10.71 % corresponds to 40 ½ degrees.

Another accepted alkali is fabricated by abacus 3/4 cup of alkali (219 g) to 1 gallon (3.8 liters)of water

219g / 219 3800 g = 0.05

0.05 x 100 = 5 % of salt

Looking in the table at Cavalcade 2 (percent sodium chloride by weight) we can see that 5 % corresponds to 19 degrees.

Basic alkali has consistently been alkali and baptize and all added capacity are extras. You can adapt your basal alkali application the alkali tester afresh abacus all added actual ingredients, mix them able-bodied and analysis your account afresh to accept a advertence for the future.

Salinometer readings are calibrated to accord a actual adumbration back the alkali is at 60° F temperature. Anniversary alkali tester will accept its own instructions for temperature advantage but the basal aphorism of deride says that for every 10° F the alkali is aloft 60° F, one amount should be added to the account afore application table. If the alkali is beneath 60° F decrease 1 amount for anniversary 10° F from the empiric salinometer account afore application table.

For example, if a salinometer indicates 70 degrees alkali and the brine’s temperature is 40° F, the adapted salinometer account would be 68 degrees (for anniversary 10 F below 60 F, one salinometer amount is substracted). If the alkali temperature is 80° F and the salinometer indicates 40 degrees, the adapted account would be 82 degrees SAL (for anniversary 10° F above 60° F, one salinometer amount is added)These are actual baby differences which are of bigger accent for a meat bulb abating huge amounts of meat at one time. Causeless to say a thermometer is bare too.

The Easiest Way to Accomplish Brine

Basically you accept to acknowledgment yourself a few questions:

  1. How abundant alkali - depends on the weight of your meat
  2. How able alkali - depends on a affectionate of meat and the abating time you ambition to employ
  3. Do you charge nitrate/nitrite (Cure1/Cure2)
  4. Do you charge sugar

Let's attending at these one at a time:

How Abundant Brine

The easiest way is to appraisal the bare bulk of brine. You accept to awning the meats and a lot of alkali will be ashen if you cure 1 craven in a abounding to the top 55 gallon drum. A basal aphorism of deride dictates that the bulk of alkali should appear to 50 % in affiliation to the weight of the meat. For 2 lbs of meat use 1 batter of brine. Try to use a alembic whose admeasurement and appearance will accomodate best the meat allotment to use as little alkali as possible. In Poland area bodies accept smoked meats for hundreds of years, about everybody (meats plants included) uses the afterward weight ratio: from 30 % to 40 % of baptize to 100 % of meat. That agency that for 1 kg (2.2 lbs) of meat we add 0.4 liters (400 mg) of water. Accumulate in apperception that 1 liter of baptize weighs absolutely 1 kg.

Then you accept the backbone of the alkali and accumulate on abacus alkali blockage the account with a salometer. This is a rather time consumming adjustment and you can accomplish alkali abundant faster by application tables, the way professionals do.

To accomplish alkali we charge to use alone three columns of the table and they are black in chicken color.

For archetype we appetite 22 degrees alkali to cure chicken. If you chase the 22 amount row to the appropriate you will see in Cavalcade 3 that 0.513 lb of alkali has to be added to 1 gallon of baptize to accomplish 22 bulk brine. Or to accomplish 80 bulk alkali we charge to mix 2.229 lbs of alkali with 1 gallon of water. Again analysis it with your salinometer and you can add a cup of baptize or a tablespoon of alkali to get a absolute reading. If you end up with not abundant brine, accomplish some more. If you anticipate you may charge aloof 1/2 gallon added of 80 bulk brine, booty 1/2 gallon of baptize and add 1/2 of alkali that the table asks for. In this case attractive at 80 bulk alkali (Column 1), activity to the appropriate you can see that in Cavalcade 3 the bulk of the bare alkali is 2.229 lbs. Yes, but this bulk is added to 1 gallon of baptize to actualize 80 bulk brine. Because we use alone 1/2 gallon now, this bulk of alkali nedds to be halved: 2.229lbs/2 = 1.11 lbs. In added words if we add 1.11 lbs of alkali to 1/2 gallon of baptize we will additionally actualize 80 bulk brine.

Let’s say you charge about 10 gallons of 60 degrees SAL alkali (15.8% salt) to cure ham. Locate 60 degrees SAL in Cavalcade 1 and again go beyond to Cavalcade 3 area it is declared that 1.567 pounds salt/gallon of baptize is needed. Adding 1.567 (pounds salt/gallon of baptize x 10 gallons of baptize gives us 15.67 lbs of salt. This is how abundant alkali needs to be added to 10 gallons of baptize to accomplish 60 degrees SAL brine. Agenda that you accept an added aggregate of the band-aid and it will charge a bigger catchbasin than 10 gallons that will authority added than 10 gallons of brine.

When authoritative alkali this way we end up with added alkali that can be adapted central of a 1 gallon alembic (1 gal of baptize salt). There are instances that we may charge to accomplish a precised bulk of alkali that would absolutely fit into a assertive accommodation container. To accomplish excact amounts of alkali use Columns 4 and 5 which are black blush in color.

The two columns black in blush are acclimated by bartering establishments to accomplish up exact amounts of a accurate brine. Let's say that we accept a 10 gallon alembic and afore we go fishing we would like to ample it up with 60 amount brine. Go to the Cavalcade 5 (pounds per gallon of brine) which reads that 1.475 pounds of alkali are bare to accomplish exactly 1 gallon of brine at 60 degrees. Cavalcade 7 says that 0.941 gallon of baptize is needed.These readings now accept to be assorted by 10 gallons:

1.475 lbs alkali x 10 = 14.75 lbs salt

0.941 gallon of baptize x 10 = 9.41 gallons

If we add now 14.75 lbs of alkali to 9.41 gallons of baptize we would access excactly 10 gallons of 60 degrees brine.

Strength of the Brine

There is no accepted alkali and its backbone (amount of alkali in water) will be up to you. Alkali tester is a charge and a anthology for approaching advertence will be of invaluable help. You can use stronger alkali and your abating time will be beneath or you can use a milder alkali and the abating time can be longer. Some archetypal brines are accustomed below:

Brine Strength Product
0 - 20, brines too weak  
20 chicken
30 poultry, fish
40 chicken
50 spareribs
60 bacon, loins
60 - 80 hams, shoulders
80 fish
80 -100, brines hardly used  

Note: if you add amoroso into your alkali it will be heavier. For archetype if we add 8 lbs of alkali to 5 gallons of baptize we access 61 amount alkali but if we add 8 lbs of alkali additional 3 lbs of amoroso to 5 gallons of water, we get 75 amount brine. All our calculations are based on alkali and baptize only.

Curing adjustment used, abating times and alkali backbone all depends on anniversary other:

  • The backbone of the alkali – the stronger the alkali the faster abating action
  • The admeasurement of the convalescent meat – a accomplished turkey requires added brining time than a shrimp
  • The adjustment acclimated – pumping and brining or aloof brining. Pumping meat shortens abating time.

Make abiding you don't alkali meats that accept already been brined afore you buy them, such as bazaar abounding pork, which has been advised with sodium phosphate and baptize to accomplish it juicier. Apprehension that sugar, admitting added to alkali afterwards it is made, does not participate in adding for authoritative alkali of accurate strength. That is due to the afterward reasons:

  • A lot of brines do not alarm for amoroso at all
  • A lot of brines alarm for altered amounts of amoroso (more amoroso for a bacon, beneath amoroso for a ham)
  • People use altered sugars, dextrose, maple abstract or honey

Most meats like 70 – 75 degrees brine, banty brand weaker band-aid – 21 degrees and best angle are convalescent at 80 degrees brine. Of advance there are baby bore meat cuts and big ones (loins, butts, hams), craven breasts, accomplished chickens and turkeys, and angle fillets, baby angle and big angle and all these altered meats and cuts will accept altered abating times.

Products like loins, hams, poultry, and spareribs aftertaste acceptable back added amoroso is applied. Amoroso is not a abating abettor and it has actual little aftereffect on the abating process. Anticipate of amoroso added like a flavoring.

A aphorism of deride for abating times estimates for the acceptable wet cure adjustment (brine backbone 50 – 65 degrees)

  • 11 canicule per inch of array of the meat
  • About 3 ½ to 4 canicule per batter for 20 lbs. hams and picnics
  • 3 canicule per batter for abate cuts.

The afterward alkali strengths are for acclimatization purpose alone and feel chargeless to ad-lib your own brines.

Meat Type Brine Backbone in SAL degrees Time
Meat (ham, shoulders) 65 - 75 degrees 4 canicule per pound
Bacon 55 - 65 degrees 1 ½ - 2 canicule per pound
Loins 55 - 65 3 weeks
Spareribs 50 -55 1 week
Poultry 21 degrees overnight
Fish 80 ½ -2 hours

Brine with Nitrates/Nitrites

The USA regulations admittance the afterward amounts of nitrates/nitrites for wet cure:

7 lbs. of sodium or potassium nitrate (saltpeter) to 100 gallon pickle

2 lbs. of sodium or potassium nitrite to 100 gallon bind @ 10 % pump level.

To break aural accustomed nitrite banned (200 ppm) our alkali looks as follows:

1 gal of water, 5 oz Cure 1 (144 g = 0.31 lb) which corresponds to 1 gal of baptize and 8 collapsed Tablespoons of Cure 1.

If we acclimated alone 5 oz of Cure 1 (there is 93.75 % alkali in it) and 1 gal of baptize it will accord us 14 amount alkali which is an almost backbone of seawater. This is too anemic a alkali for any applied purpose and added alkali has to be added.

The aboriginal catechism to be answered is whether Cure 1 will be used. If you are activity to smoke or baker your meats at 190 F or college you don’t charge to anguish about botulism (food poisoning). Bethink that nitrates/nitrites (Cure 1 and Cure 2) besides preventing botulism admit a appropriate acidity and blush associated with smoked meats. The bulk of Cure 1 consistently stays the aforementioned (5 oz or 144 g or 8 Tbs) at altered alkali strengths as continued as 1 gallon of baptize is acclimated and conforms to the government accustomed 200 ppm best limit. By application the aloft table you can not alone ascendancy yourself authoritative the alkali but you can analysis whether added recipes accommodate to the government standards. You should be acquainted that the table is for best bulk of nitrites (Cure 1) in the brine. The easiest way to accomplish a abating band-aid (water, salt, nitrite) is to add 5 oz Cure 1 to one gallon of baptize and again add added alkali until the adapted salinometer account (brine strength) is obtained.

Buck in apperception that back you add Cure 1 to your band-aid (it contains 93.75 % salt) you will be alteration the backbone of the brine, abnormally at college degrees. Simply decrease this bulk from the alkali accustomed by the tables. The bulk of Cure 1 that we add to 1 gal of baptize charcoal the aforementioned (144 g = 0.31 lb) behindhand of the backbone of the alkali we are making.

For example, to accomplish 60 amount alkali Cavalcade 3 asks for 1.567 lbs of alkali to be added to 1 gallon of water. But because we are abacus 0.31 lb (144 g) of alkali that is central of Cure 1, we accept to decrease that from the alkali the table calls for. The aftereffect is: 1.567 - 0.310 = 1.257. To accomplish 1 gal 60 amount alkali with nitrite we need:

0.310 lb (144 g or 5 oz) of Cure 1

1.257 lb of salt

1 gal of water

And if we charge 5 gallons of the aloft brine, we artlessly accumulate all capacity by 5.

Note: Nitrites are not accustomed in all breed of angle acclimated for smoking. The Aliment and Biologic Administering currently allows nitrites to be acclimated in salmon, sablefish, shad, chubs, and tuna.

The accepted traditional abating alkali for anniversary 100 lbs. of meat has been: 8 lbs. salt, 3 lbs. sugar, 3 oz. saltpeter (potassium nitrate) and 4 ½  to 6 gals. of water. This is absolutely the aforementioned admixture as acclimated for dry abating except for the accession of water. Hundreds of recipes that can be begin in books or on the Internet will accommodate to this formula. This is basically the accepted 8:3:3 dry cure mix that is added to 4 ½ - 6 gallons of water. Nowadays it is about absurd to access authentic nitrates/nitrites and premixed nitrite cures (Cure 1, Cure 2) are offered instead.

8 lbs. of salt/4 ½ gallon of baptize = 66 degrees brine. Best for hams and shoulders.

8 lbs. of salt/5 gallons of baptize = 61 degrees brine. Loins and bacon

8 lbs. of salt/5 ½ gallon of baptize = 57 degrees brine. Loins, bacon, spareribs

8 lbs of water/6 gallons of baptize = 52 degrees brine. Spareribs

4 lbs. of salt/6 gal of baptize = 26 degrees brine. Poultry

Curing times: 11 to 13 canicule per inch of best thickness

As meat may be absorbed in alkali for absolutely a continued time, sometimes alike up to 6 weeks, it goes after adage that we appetite our alkali to be actual clean, contrarily we may acquaint some bacilli to it and that will blemish the brine. That is why it is a acceptable abstraction to pre-cure your meat as it was done in dry curing. Booty the allotment of the dry mix afore it is attenuated in baptize and rub it in into the meat. Let it sit brief in a air-conditioned abode (preferably in a refrigerator) to acquiesce claret to be fatigued out. Again bathe it and asperse in a wet brine.

Required bulk of alkali should be attenuated in water, brought to a abscess and above for about one hour (prolonged baking kills all bacteria). Depending on the affection of alkali we may accept some algae that will accumulate on the apparent and they shall be biconcave up and discarded. Some of the alkali shall be transferred to a abate alembic and the actual capacity (nitrite, sugar, spices and if acclimated the actinic ingredients) shall be added and mixed. Again it should be added to the capital allocation of alkali and the band-aid should be arrested with a alkali tester (salinometer) for able strength. Afterwards that it should be larboard for 24-48 hours for the algae to achieve bottomward at the bottom. Again the band-aid should be siphoned off through a clarify (fine cloth, cardboard towel, gauze) to a altered alembic after active the sediment. The alkali should not be stored at temperatures college than 4° C.

Although the aloft action sounds a bit complicated it absolutely should be acclimated back advancing ample amounts of alkali (25 US gallons, 95 liters). In such cases we will be abating 200 kg (450 lbs) of meat or added and we cannot booty a accident of communicable the brine. For a home sausage maker abating baby amounts of meat, bond all capacity in tap baptize will be fine, admitting the band-aid should be arrested with a alkali tester and kept in a refrigerator until added use. There are bacilli present in a tap baptize although they are controllable to us. Whether they will blemish the alkali is anybody’s assumption and you can not go amiss by baking baptize for 10 account first.

brine injector

Brine injecting machine. Courtesy Koch Equipment, Kansas Burghal MO

Adding sugar

Sugar is NOT a abating abettor and its capital use is to account the acerbity of alkali and to added advance acidity and final color. It is able-bodied accepted that fruits preserved with amoroso accumulate able-bodied for a continued time back closed in jars (canning). In meat curing, amoroso is in rather low absorption to anticipate the advance of bacteria. Back added to alkali it becomes aliment for abundant bacilli that adopt it as a food. With no amoroso present those bacilli will augment on protein. Addition account is that amoroso helps to advance the color. It does that alongside by accouterment aliment (sugar) to those bacilli that acknowledge with nitrate which in about-face absolution nitrite. It acts additionally as anti-oxidant. What it agency is that it reacts calmly with oxygen and prevents the closing from alteration the blush of the meat.

Sugar added to alkali becomes an added aliment for abounding bacteria. Now our alkali or candied bind goes into a complicated but quiet beverage process. Abounding added technologies await on the beverage action (baking bread, authoritative wine) and abating is somewhat similar. Back authoritative wine we mix aggrandize (bacteria) with baptize and we add amoroso (food for yeast) to alpha fermentation.

Curing band-aid should abide at temperatures no college than 41° F (5° C) contrarily amoroso will facilitate accelerated fermentation and the development of meat abasement microorganisms which is what we are aggravating to abstain in the aboriginal place. Alike at low temperatures the accession of amoroso to wet cure should be bound to 2 % (in affiliation to salt) or beneath as it may alpha accelerated beverage which in about-face may affect the affection of the product. Frequently it is accustomed to use amid 1-2 % of amoroso in a wet abating band-aid and 2-2.5 % of amoroso in a dry cure mix. It does not absolutely amount abundant whether white or amber amoroso is used. Sugars frequently acclimated in meat abating are beet, pikestaff and corn. Molasses and syrups accept additionally been used. Accumulate in apperception that altered sugars will accept altered degrees of sweetness. Honey is generally added to angular meats (ham) or alike bacon for a characteristic flavor.

3 % of amoroso in affiliation to alkali is the frequently accustomed figure. We accept looked at a cardinal of professionally accounting Meat Technology books by notable experts in the acreage and we accept begin that actual little amoroso (below 3 % in affiliation to salt) is acclimated in abating solutions. For example, in American classical dry mix mixture: 8 lbs alkali : 3 lbs amoroso : 3 ozs potassium nitrate – the allotment of amoroso in affiliation to alkali is: 3 lb sugar/8 lb alkali and that comes to 37%.

The books we accept advised were:

  • Meat Artefact Technology by M.D. Ranken (English Book)
  • Meat Technology and Authoritative Meat Articles (Technologia Mięsa i Produktów Mięsnych) – A.A. Manergerger and E.J. Mirkin (Russian Book)
  • Meat Technology (Technologia Mięsa) – Adam Olszowski, Ph.D (Polish Book)
  • Meat Technology (Przetwórstwo Mięsa) – Władysław Poszczepczyński – Brightness Book
  • Meat Through the Microscope – C. Robert Moulton, Ph.D and W. Lee Lewis, Ph.D, The University of Chicago

In all those able books the bulk of amoroso in affiliation to alkali was consistently beneath 5%. In Brightness and Russian books the allotment of alkali was beneath 3% or less. As you can see abacus amoroso will be a amount of your claimed choice, abounding abating solutions don’t apply amoroso at all.

The amoroso frequently acclimated in abating is pikestaff or beet amoroso additionally accepted as “sucrose”. Sometimes added sugars, syrups, and molasses are acclimated and they all accept a altered actinic composition. Actual accepted is light-colored and able-bodied refined  amoroso alleged “dextrose”, additionally accepted as cerelose. Accumulate in apperception that dextrose (corn sugar) contains beneath amoroso than pikestaff or beet amoroso and acutely tastes beneath sweet. A amoroso begin in raisin abstract and in honey is accepted as “fructose” , sometimes alleged levulose. There is a amoroso alleged “luctose” in delicate milk products. Beneath assertive altitude the sucrose (common sugar) can be breach into two sugars of according proportions:

Sucrose (12 carbon atoms) = dextrose (6 carbon atoms) and levulose (6 carbon atoms).

Which Amoroso is the Best?

The acknowledgment is actual simple: there is no cogent difference. There is no aberration amid pikestaff and beet amoroso back acclimated for curing. Dextrose (corn sugar) is a abbreviation amoroso and it is best able in cures calling for abbreviate abating times (up to 15 days) as it reduces abominable pigments in the meat. It reacts with those pigments and prevents them from alteration the blush of the meat. As it contains less amoroso than added types, beneath of it charcoal in alkali afterwards 10 canicule and its abating backdrop are somewhat inhibited. Fructose amoroso (honey) is additionally a abbreviation amoroso and exibits the aforementioned properties. Abominably it is too big-ticket to be of applied use. It is sometimes acclimated by home sausagemakers to accomplish a dry convalescent bacon as it imparts a appropriate flavor.

Sucrose (common pikestaff and beet sugar) is not a abbreviation amoroso but afterwards about 10 canicule in a bind it starts to breach bottomward into dextrose and fructose (levulose) and is best able at continued abating times. For all purpose abating and aspartame the accepted aesthetic amoroso is the best choice. Partially aesthetic amoroso (Grade 2) will cure meats as acceptable as others and may be of absorption to bartering establishments as its amount will be lower.

Note: dextrose is abundant added than apparent amoroso and is alone 70 % as candied as approved sugar. It is a acceptable best back abating solutions accommodate potassium nitrate or back authoritative brewed sausages.

How Abundant Sugar?

If we adjudge to accept 3 % amoroso in affiliation to salt, all we charge is a calculator. For example, we accept 60 amount alkali and in the table Cavalcade 3 calls for 1.567 lbs of alkali to be added to 1 gallon of water. All we accept to do is to accumulate 1.567 by 0.03 (3 %) and the aftereffect is: 1.567 x 0.03 = 0.047 lbs of amoroso = 0.752 oz = 21 g = 4 tsp.

Oversalting can calmly accomplish a artefact not comestible but amoroso is actual affectionate and you can consistently eat your meat-cake. The allotment acclimated (3 %) is ten times abate than bulk of amoroso (37 %) that has been present in American mix (8:3:3) for 100 years. Barter adopt abounding articles on the candied side: honey flavored ham, honey flavored bacon or banty and ribs. Amoroso is a additive agent, it does not cure meat anon and the bulk you appetite to use is up to you.

Spices and Vinegar

Spices are acclimated in abating meats for the acidity they impart. It is accepted that the oils independent in spices can arrest bacterial browth. To be of any use they will accept to be in actual aerial absorption and alike again they can not be acclimated abandoned in curing. There was a allegory a few centuries ago (no refrigeration) that back some awful flavored spices like saffron, marjoram, back-scratch and others were added to recipes, the meats kept well. The actuality is that they helped to affectation the ordor of the boring decomposing meats authoritative them adequate for consumption. It is like putting on aroma instead demography a shower. Now you apperceive why some countries like to use a lot of able spices. In hot altitude bodies use a lot of hot peppers not alike alive why. Bistro hot aliment (peppers) accomplish your anatomy diaphoresis all over and it gets cooled at the aforementioned time. For a guy sitting beneath a approach timberline and after admission to electricity and the air conditioning, the alone agency to air-conditioned bottomward is to accumulate on bistro hot peppers and bubbler algid beer.

Pepper is basically added for flavor. It has no amount as a bactericide and has little efect back added to alkali cures back it can not deliquesce in water. But it can be rubbed on the meat afterwards abating or smoking, abacus some flavor.

Vinegar is actual able in preventing the advance of bacilli as best bacilli do not like acidy environment. Alkali additionally adds acidity to the artefact and is frequently acclimated in marinades and barbecue sauces. It is additionally acclimated in Mexican Chorizo Sausage.

Bad alkali symptoms

  • White fungus and cream on top
  • Milky blush and abhorrent odor
  • Brine turns dejected in color
  • Brine becomes actual broken-down (gluey) to touch

It is accustomed for a attenuate algae or white cast to accrue on top of the brine. This white cream should be periodically removed. In case the cream starts to accord a abhorrent odor, about-face dejected in color, or becomes abundant thicker fungus we will accept to abolish the ham, ablution it in air-conditioned baptize and abode it afresh in afresh fabricated brine. At the aboriginal suspicion of alkali accident it should be replaced with a beginning one, in best cases there is annihilation amiss with the meat itself which should be aloof rinsed. Bad alkali was nicknamed “Ropy” bind and was stringy, adhesive or clammy decrepit from the fingers like syrup. Convalescent meats should be absolutely absorbed in alkali and abounding bottomward back necessary. Best important no meat should beetle from the brine as it may get baby and again ruin the accomplished brine.

If brining a ample bulk of meat, backpack them calm in a butt after application boundless force. Abundant pieces like hams and amateur on the bottom, lighter ones like bacon on the top. Again you can cascade in the able band-aid accoutrement all pieces. As the meats will alpha to about-face and will appear to the surface, abode a acceptable apple-pie weight on top to anticipate meat from acquaintance with the air as this can blemish the brine. Backpack meats the bark ancillary down. The alembic should be placed finer in a refrigerator or in a cool, able-bodied aerial place.

Reusing brine

Reusing alkali at home altitude is a bad abstraction as the old alkali could accept some bacilli in it from the antecedent use. Besides, cure mixes are so bargain that it makes no faculty to booty a accident of meat contamination. We would like to acknowledgment that in the accomplished re-using appropriately able abating solutions was actual accepted and helped to access the convalescent color, the abundant aftertaste and acidity abundant faster. It additionally helped to anticipate a accident of meat juices and minerals that occurred during curing. The ahead acclimated abating band-aid was abundant weaker and added alkali and nitrites had to be added. That requires able testing and alike if acclimated should be aloof for bartering meat plants.

Baumé Scale

You may appear accross a calibration in Baumé degrees that is based on the specific force of the alkali abstinent with a hydrometer. It is a accepted calibration in metric countries and you can generally acquisition advertence accustomed in Baumé degrees. One can measure the force of the alkali with a distinctively advised float (like a alkali tester) and one can accredit to the table and attending up the % NaCl (salt) by weight. We accept aggregate a table that compares alkali backbone amount with Baumé scale.

Specific Gravity % NaCl (Salt) by Weight Baumé Degrees Salometer Degrees
1.007 1 1.0 4
1.014 2 2.0 8
1.022 3 3.1 12
1.029 4 4.1 15
1.037 5 5.2 19
1.044 6 6.1 25
1.051 7 7.0 27
1.058 8 7.9 30
1.066 9 8.9 34
1.073 10 9.8 37
1.081 11 10.9 41
1.089 12 11.9 46
1.096 13 12.7 50
1.104 14 13.7 54
1.112 15 14.6 57
1.119 16 15.4 61
1.127 17 16.3 65
1.135 18 17.2 69
1.143 19 18.1 72
1.151 20 19.0 76
1.159 21 19.9 80
1.168 22 20.9 84
1.176 23 21.7 88
1.184 24 22.5 92
1.192 25 23.4 95
1.201 26 24.3 99

Salt Tables for UK gallons - UK gallon holds 4.54 liters

One Baumé amount corresponds to 10 g of alkali in 1 liter of water.

Making alkali by application amphibian egg method

Floating egg is an old acceptable ambush to admeasurement the strenghth of the brine. Why bodies accomplish alkali application egg as a meausuring device? In some countries it is not an calmly achievable item, some bodies does not apperceive it exists and others don't appetite to buy it. Salinometer is fabricated of bottle and can breach at any time. Admitting an egg does not accommodate authentic readings it at atomic can advice in case of an emergency. As there is no reliable advice on how the egg behaves back absorbed in alkali and we accept apparent some sources adage that 80 degrees alkali is accomplished back the band-aid will aloof float an egg, we accept absitively to analysis the amount ourselves.

Conclusion

Between 10º and 20º degrees the eggs layed prety abundant on the bottom. At 30º degrees they approved to float back affected with fingers. The aboriginal ones to accession of the basal were X-Large White and Large-Brown at 35º degrees. They were additionally the aboriginal ones to breach the apparent at 40º degrees. The best authentic point 45º degrees back all eggs swam to the surface.

To account the backbone of the alkali application the amphibian egg or potato adjustment makes actual little faculty as the readings are not reliable. There are books that apostle this adjustment and anniversary of them accord altered readings. The egg sinks in apple-pie baptize and as the alkali is added it should alpha appropriation to the surface. Well, they do but in a actual capricious manner. We accept arrested the amphibian egg adjustment application bristles altered admeasurement beginning eggs and the after-effects were inconclusive.

More advice on authoritative alkali can be begin in hams.

Useful Information

  • The 100 degrees alkali (saturated) equals 26.4 % alkali and a advantageous blueprint for artful percent alkali in a alkali is to accumulate the salimeter (brine tester) account by 26.4 percent.
  • For exammple the percent alkali in 60 degrees alkali is: 60 x 26.4 percent (0.264) = 15.84 percent alkali in brine.
  • When accomplishing those calculations we can avoid the access of the baptize temperature on salt. The acumen actuality the actuality that there is actual little aberration for the bulk of alkali to deliquesce at altered temperatures, for archetype at 32 F (0 C) 26.2 % of alkali makes a saturated solution, and at 212° F (100° C) about 28.9 % alkali will deliquesce in water.
  • Baking soda was sometimes acclimated in baby quantities to sweeten brine, or to accommodate it. Abacus a baby bulk of baking soda (1 Tbs to 25 lbs of meat) to alkali in balmy acclimate was accepted to anticipate it from spoiling.
  • For pumping band-aid it is appropriate to accept account of 70 – 85°, absolutely salty.
  • For awning band-aid the band-aid ability be bargain to 55 – 65° as the meat will be absorbed in it for best time.
  • Pumped at 10% of meat’s weight agency a 10 lbs. ham requires 1 lb. of alkali solution.
  • Amount of baptize bare for authoritative alkali – about 40% of the meat weight.
  • Recommended wet abating temperatures 36 – 40° F ( 2 – 5° C) at 90 – 95 % humidity.
  • Salt dissolves abundant faster in hot baptize and that is why some bodies abscess wet brine, again analyze it, and air-condition it one day afore advised use.
  • It is appropriate to abode meat on a calibration back pumping to ascendancy bulk of pumped in brine.

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