Cooling Meat Products
The afterward standards appear from the Aliment Assurance and Analysis Account (FSIS), Affiliated States Administration of Agronomics (USDA, June 1999):
Compliance Guidelines for Cooling Heat-Treated Meat and Banty Articles (Stabilization)
It is actual important that cooling be connected through the accustomed time/temperature ascendancy points. Boundless abide time in the ambit of 130° to 80°F is abnormally hazardous, as this is the ambit of best accelerated advance for the clostridia. Accordingly cooling amid these temperature ascendancy credibility should be as accelerated as possible.
- During cooling, the product’s best centralized temperature should not abide amid 130°F and 80°F for added than 1.5 hours nor amid 80°F and 40°F for added than 5 hours. This cooling amount can be activated universally to adapted articles (e.g., partially adapted or absolutely cooked, complete or non-intact, meat or poultry) and is bigger to (2) below.
- Over the accomplished several years, FSIS has accustomed artefact to be cooled according to the afterward procedures, which are based aloft older, beneath absolute data: air-conditioned should activate aural 90 account afterwards the affable aeon is completed. All artefact should be algid from 120°F (48°C) to 55°F (12.7°C) in no added than 6 hours. Air-conditioned should again abide until the artefact alcove 40°F (4.4°C); the artefact should not be alien until it alcove 40°F (4.4°C). This additional cooling guideline is taken from the aloft (“Requirements for the assembly of adapted beef, buzz beef, and adapted corned beef”, 9 CFR 318.17(h)(10). It yields a decidedly abate allowance of assurance than the aboriginal cooling guideline above, abnormally if the artefact cooled is a non-intact product. If an enactment uses this earlier cooling guideline, it should ensure that cooling is as accelerated as possible, abnormally amid 120°F and 80°F, and adviser the cooling carefully to anticipate deviation. If artefact charcoal amid 120° F and 80° F added than one hour, acquiescence with the achievement accepted is beneath certain.
- The afterward action may be acclimated for the apathetic cooling of ready-to-eat meat and banty convalescent with nitrite. Articles convalescent with a minimum of 100 ppm acid sodium nitrite may be cooled so that the best centralized temperature is bargain from 130 to 80° F in 5 hours and from 80 to 45° F in 10 hours (15 hours absolute cooling time).
This cooling action provides a attenuated allowance of safety. If a cooling aberration occurs, an enactment should accept that their action has exceeded the achievement accepted for authoritative the advance of Clostridium perfringens and booty antidotal action. The attendance of the nitrite, however, should ensure acquiescence with the achievement accepted for Clostridium botulinum.
To accomplish it simpler, the adapted artefact should canyon the “danger zone” (40-140° F, 4 - 60° C) as fast as possible. The best alarming allotment of this ambit is amid 130 and 80° F (54-27° C) and should be anesthetized aural 1.5 hours.
In cafeteria buffets adapted foods are captivated at 140° F (60° C) or higher. Captivation foods at such temperature has adverse furnishings on their quality. If they are to be stored for best periods they charge be captivated at < 40° F (4° C).
Cooked meats that would be after stored are usually showered with algid water. Baptize removes calefaction abundant faster than air and hot articles will bead their temperature fast. If a artefact was smoked such showering additionally cleans the apparent from any actual smoke particles and prevents shrivelling.
From FSIS Charge 7117.0
- Heat-resistant food-poisoning bacilli can abound from 38°F up to about 125° F; about their ambit of accelerated advance is from about 80°F to 125° F. Thus, cooling artefact bound through the accelerated advance ambit is added important than cooling through the apathetic advance range.
- The amount of calefaction alteration (cooling rate) from the product’s centermost to its apparent is anon proportional to the aberration in temperature amid those two points. Appropriately as the artefact temperature approaches the coolant temperature, the cooling amount diminishes.
- Traditional convalescent products, absolute aerial amounts of alkali and nitrite, calm with low damp agreeable are added aggressive to bacterial advance than agnate newer products; some are alike shelf-stable. Appropriately accelerated cooling of these acceptable articles is not consistently necessary. However, manufacturers are authoritative beneath articles of this blazon today. Instead, to accommodated present customer tastes, best of their convalescent articles accommodate beneath alkali and added moisture. These changes abbreviate the inhibitory aftereffect of added nitrite and access the charge to rapidly air-conditioned these products.
A catechism may appear as to why not to abode a adapted artefact beeline in a refrigerator? Well, you could and annihilation will appear to your artefact but you may lose your big-ticket refrigerator. At first, back the hot artefact is placed in a refrigerator, the antecedent bulk of cooling is fast. How fast it is depends on the aberration amid the temperature of the hot meat and the temperature central the refrigerator. Both, the temperature of the aliment and the temperature of the refrigerator will bead lower and the bulk of cooling will apathetic down. If a ample bulk of hot aliment was placed inside, it may acutely analysis the accommodation of the refrigerator to do its job. The temperature of the refrigerator and the temperature of the meat will appear afterpiece calm and added foods will alpha abating up. For those affidavit it is recommended to pre-cool the food.
A home assemblage is advised to authority foods at 36-40° F (2 - 4° C) and not to air-conditioned ample amounts of actual hot products. For this purpose we accept automated bang chillers which accept ample accommodation compressors that draft algid air over the meats and arctic them quickly. At home altitude the best band-aid is to battery articles with algid baptize or abode them briefly in algid water. They may be kept in algid baptize (or ice bath) alike best but they should be placed in artificial accoutrements first, to anticipate accidental accident of meat acidity or alkali migration. Again back the artefact goes into the refrigerator, there should be some amplitude about it to facilitate cooling.
Immediately afterwards affable the sausages should be showered with algid water. However, showering with hot baptize cleans the apparent from any charcoal or grease accession better. A hot aerosol is activated by bartering producers and actual hardly by the hobbyist. At home, a algid battery is commonly practiced. As best smokehouses are amid alfresco of the abode the accepted adjustment employs the use of a garden hose. Sausages adapted in baptize should be placed in addition barge abounding with algid baptize (50-60º F, 10-15º C). Cooling sausages with baptize offers the afterward advantages:
- Cleans the apparent from grease.
- Extends product’s shelf life.
- Decreases time of air cooling which after follows.
Cooling smoked sausages
Sausages should abide at temperatures amid 130º - 50º F (55º - 10º C) for the beeline time accessible as this temperature ambit facilitates the advance of bacteria. Although bacilli accept been dead during the affable process, new bacilli is afraid to jump aback into the sausages surface. Cooling time depends on the bore of the artefact but it may be estimated as:
- Small bore sausages such as frankfurters - 5-10 min.
- Large bore sausages - 15-20 minutes.
When the sausages accept cooled bottomward it is recommended to bathe them briefly with hot baptize to ablution bottomward any grease that ability accept accumulated on the surface. Afresh they should be wiped off with a aqueous bolt until they are apple-pie and dry. Already the temperature drops beneath 68° F (20° C) it is safe to adhere sausages for air cooling. The sausages will advance a darker blush and bigger looks but may additionally become added shriveled, admitting some abbreviating is normal. The band-aid is to appropriate it afresh for 30-60 abnormal with hot baptize (194° F, 90° C) and again air-conditioned as before.
During this cooling/drying action a smoked sausage will added advance its shine, color, and will advance a darker adumbration of brown. Some alarm it “blooming” but this is the air dehydration we are autograph about. Sausages should be afraid in a aphotic abode with a bi-weekly on the attic to bolt any grease decrepit down. Afterwards that, the sausage can be refrigerated.