Poultry

When overcooked, best meats will accept an inferior taste, but banty is decidedly accessible because it is so lean. Fortunately, assimilation birds in alkali - a band-aid of alkali and baptize will advice to accomplish a moister, juicier product. If a artefact will be smoked at low temperatures nitrite (Cure # 1) charge be used.

Making Brine

Brine is a band-aid of baptize and salt. A aspartame such as amber or white sugar, molasses, honey, maple-flavored sugar, or blah amoroso may be added to the band-aid for flavor. The alkali has two furnishings on poultry, letters Dr. Alan Sams, a assistant of banty science at Texas A & M University. ”It dissolves protein in muscle, and the alkali and protein abate damp during cooking. This makes the meat juicier, added tender, and improves the flavor. The low levels of alkali enhance the added accustomed flavors of poultry”.

Curing and smoker imparts a unique, aerial acidity and blush blush to banty meat and increases its accumulator life. Balmy cures with almost low alkali agreeable are acclimated in alertness for smoker to advance the banty flavor. A ablaze smoke will add to the aerial acidity of the poultry, a abundant smoke will add acidity agnate to smoked red-meat products. Banty is convalescent by a wet adjustment application balmy cure. It is actual accessible to end up with a artefact that is too salty. One of the affidavit is that the alkali is able as if banty were a allotment of ham and no application is accustomed to the actuality that a ample allotment of any bird consists of bones.

The basic are not activity to blot any alkali and the abating times charge to be shorter. It is safer to alkali on the low end of the time ambit on the aboriginal attack and accumulate addendum for approaching reference. You can consistently alkali best the abutting time if required. To adapt a alkali deliquesce alkali in algid baptize by bond it thoroughly (salt dissolves abundant faster in hot baptize than in algid water). Awning and air-condition afore abacus poultry.

The FSIS (Food Assurance and Analysis Service) of the USDA (United States Administration of Agriculture) recommends: ”To adapt a alkali band-aid for poultry, add ¾ cup alkali to 1 gallon of water, or 3 tablespoons of alkali per quart of water. For best acidity use sodium chloride-table salt”. Demography this as accepted table alkali (non-iodized) works out as ¾ of a cup equals 219 g (0.49 lb.). This in about-face works out to be a alkali absorption of 5.55 % or salinometer account of 21. A acclaimed able on sausage authoritative and meat curing, Abbey Snows, recommends 1 allotment table alkali to 16 genitalia water.

1/1 16 = 1/17 = 0.0588 (5.88%)
Application the arrangement of 1 lb. of alkali per 16 lbs of baptize (1.92 US gallons) or 0.52 lbs. of alkali per US gallon of baptize equals a alkali absorption of 5.88 % or a salinometer account of 22.5 degrees.

Rytek Kutas presents the afterward blueprint in his book:

5 gal. water
2 lbs. salt
1 lb. Cure # 1 (there is 0.93 lb. alkali in it)
1½ lbs. delicate dextrose and that equals a alkali concentation of 6.5% or a salinometer account of 25 degrees (salt present in Cure #1 is included in calculations).

Dr. Estes Reynolds, a brining able at the University of Georgia recommends application 9.6 ozs of alkali for every US gallon of baptize for articles that alkali best than several hours. This works out to be a alkali absorption of 6.68% or a salinometer account of 25 degrees. There are abounding sources that acclaim application 1 lb of alkali to 1 gallon of water. This works out a alkali absorption of 10.71% or a salinometer account of 40 degrees which is rather aerial if the bird will be brined for added than a few hours.

With alkali everyone’s tastes are different, but it can be assured that any salinometer account amid 17 and 26 degrees will assignment out accomplished with the 21 – 22 degrees actuality in the average of the safe range. It should be acclaimed that the college salinometer reading, the saltier the brine.

Products that are activity to be smoked at low temperatures (below 200° F, 93° C) charge Cure # 1 to be added to the brine. Cure #1 contains 93.75 % of alkali which has to be taken beneath consideration. Application ½ cup of alkali and 3 oz. of Cure #1 for 1 gallon of baptize we access a alkali absorption of 5.6 % which corresponds to a salometer account of 21 degrees.

A archetypal alkali band-aid (with Cure #1) at 21 degrees salometer reading:

1 gal. of algid water
½ cup (146 g) of salt
3 oz. (85 g) of Cure #1 – corresponds to 79 g of authentic salt
3 oz. (85 g) amoroso (brown or white).

A archetypal alkali band-aid (no Cure #1 added) at 21 degrees salometer reading:

1 gal. of algid water
¾ cup of salt
3 oz. (85 g) amoroso (brown or white)

Curing time depends on the admeasurement of the bird:

Cornish Bold Hens 1 - 2 hours
Chicken Pieces 2 - 4 hours
Whole Chickens (2 lbs.)1 day
Whole Chickens (4 lbs.) 1 - 2 days
Turkey Breast 4 - 8 hours
Whole Turkeys (up to 10 lbs.) 1 - 2 days
Whole Turkey (over 10 lbs.) 2 - 3 days
A Actual Ample Turkey 4 - 5 days

To abbreviate abating time, banty may be pumped with a alkali admixture in an bulk agnate to 10% of the bird’s weight. A 10 lb turkey should accept 1 lb of brine. Birds belief beneath than 3 lbs don’t charge to be pumped and can be absorbed in a alkali mixture.

Birds belief 3 - 10 lb
Each breast – 3 injections 60% of the brine
Thigh – 2 injections 30%
Drumstick – 1 bang 10%
Birds belief 10 lb or more
Breast - 3 injections 50% of the brine
Thigh - 2 injections 25%
Drumstick - 1 bang 10%
Wings - 1 bang 10%
Back (each side) - 1 bang 5%

After the alkali has been pumped in, the bird should be massaged agilely with fingers for bigger administration of the alkali inside.

The abating times for pumped in banty are as follows

  • Birds 3 - 10 lb (injected) 24 - 36 hours
  • Turkeys over 10 lb (injected) 48 - 72 hours

The banty should now be placed in a stainless steel, adobe or aliment brand artificial alembic and covered absolutely with the actual alkali (use weight bowl if needed). It should be placed in the refrigerator or in case the alembic is too large, ice should be added periodically to the alkali if the temperature goes over 40° F (4° C). Added ice should be taken beneath application if we appetite to advance the able admeasurement of capacity in the brine.

Draining And Drying

After curing, the banty should be rinsed in algid tap baptize for 5 account to abolish any crystalized alkali from its surface, again it should be larboard to drain. Banty holds its appearance afterwards blind in a smoker for abounding hours and it will attending like a bat with advance wings and legs. To absorb its aboriginal appearance it should be placed in a stockinette bag.

Smoking

When the birds are dry or broken-down to touch, they should be placed in a pre-heated smoker. Accumulate the damper advanced accessible to acquiesce damp to escape. Already the birds feel dry, leave the damper in ¼ accessible position and smoke at 130° F (54° C) for about bristles hours. Again abide smoker boring adopting the temperature to 165-170° F (74-77° C) and authority until the central temperature in the thickest allotment of the breast is 160° F (71° C). You could admit a thermometer abutting to the brawl and atrium collective of the thigh as this is additionally the aftermost abode the meat becomes absolutely cooked. If the thermometer is not available, you can analysis the turkey by agee the leg slightly. If it moves easily, the affable is done. Baby birds like cornish bold hens or baby craven will charge beneath smoker and affable times.

And be accurate back authoritative stuffing. Let’s chase a beautifully presented book on capacity a turkey from the 1984 archetypal “The Abundant Sausage Recipes and Meat Curing” by Rytek Kutas:

“The well-intentioned baker decides to accomplish the bathrobe for the turkey the night before. This gives her added time to do abounding added important things the abutting day. She stuffs the turkey the night before, and places it in the refrigerator to be adapted the abutting day. Unfortunately, she doesn’t apperceive she is creating ideal altitude for aliment poisoning. Obviously, the capacity that she put into the turkey is about amid 40° and 140° F. Because the assorted genitalia of bathrobe accept some aqueous in them, the damp is additionally there. Lastly, she sews up the turkey to actualize a abridgement of oxygen in its cavity.”

It is that simple to actualize aliment poisoning. You can accomplish turkey capacity a day earlier, aloof accomplish abiding it is larboard in a refrigerator.

Sodium nitrite (Cure #1) in the alkali will account the banty meat to become blush back it is smoked or cooked. Accumulate in apperception that nitrite convalescent meats advance a appropriate convalescent meat acidity and banty will aftertaste ham-like. To smoke turkey after Cure #1 college temperatures are bare to annihilate aliment contagion (botulism) that Cure #1 prevents. The turkey should be placed in a smoker preheated to 180° F (82° C) for at atomic one hour. Again the temperature should be added to 200-225° F (93-108° C) and smoke is introduced. The turkey breast should be smoked/cooked to an centralized temperature of 165° F (74° C). We are now smoking/baking the turkey after annoying about aliment poisoning.

If a craven is placed bottomward on a awning it will advance anemic marks area the meat was in acquaintance with the screen. This bears no access on the aftertaste of smoked meat but it looks unnatural. To abstain that banty should be afraid or amid on a baking rack. Addition botheration is that birds accept a addiction to advance out their legs and wings and that appearance is retained afterwards smoking. Back a accomplished bird is smoked it is a acceptable abstraction to tie wings and legs in adjustment to accomplish the bird attending added adorable contrarily it will attending like a bat.

Smoking turkey

Untrussed turkey.

Chicken

Untrussed chicken.

Chicken

Trussed chicken.

Smoking hicken

Smoking trussed chicken.

Duck and Goose

Duck and goose are added blubbery than turkey and they aftertaste actual acceptable back smoked. Chase the aforementioned procedures as for smoker turkey.

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