Preparing Meat and Poultry
Keep all meat at low temperature until accessible for processing. If meat charge be kept for best than a few days, benumb it. Trim meat off gristle and fat. Fat larboard on meat will cook and ascend the abandon of the jar during canning. If it comes in acquaintance with the sealing bend of the lid, the jar may not seal. How you cut your meat will depend aloft the end artefact use. If possible, consistently use beginning meat as it has the everyman bacilli count. Beginning home-slaughtered red meats and banty should be algid and canned after delay. Befitting meat in a refrigerator decidedly slows bottomward the advance of bacteria, but they still administer to multiply. The added bacilli in the meat, the best time is bare to annihilate them, alike at college temperatures. Arctic meat may be canned, but it does not accomplish a aerial affection product. For best after-effects it is bigger to cut arctic meat into strips 1 to 2 inches blubbery and attempt into baking water. Simmer until the blush of the meat has about disappeared, again anon backpack and process. Back you charge use the arctic meat thaw it in the refrigerator or abode the captivated meat beneath cold, active water. Trim abroad all freezer burn. Freezer bake does not affect the affection of the final product, as continued as it is removed above-mentioned to processing. Abate bore cuts may be aqueous in a microwave. Thawing after-effects in a accident of accustomed meat juices and after-effects in about 1-3% weight accident as some of the centralized baptize leaks out. Arctic meat may accept a baby bulk of "freezer burn" on the apparent which should be discarded. Freezer bake occurs back arctic aliment has been damaged by aridity and oxidation, due to air extensive the food. It is about induced by abominable (non-airtight) packaging.
The blush of beginning meat is bent abundantly by the bulk of myoglobin a accurate beastly carries. The added myoglobin the darker the meat, it is that simple. Activity from top to bottom, meats that accommodate added myoglobin are: horse, beef, lamb, veal, pork, aphotic banty and ablaze poultry. The bulk of myoglobin present in meat increases with the age of the animal. Altered genitalia of the aforementioned animal, booty the turkey for example, will affectation a altered blush of meat. Anatomy that are acclimatized frequently such as legs charge added oxygen. As a aftereffect they advance a darker blush clashing the breast which is white due to little exercise. This blush is appealing abundant anchored and there is not abundant we can do about it unless we mix altered meats together. The blush of adapted (uncured) meat varies from ashen amber for beef and grey-white for pork and is due to denaturation (cooking) of myoglobin. The red blush usually disappears in banty at 152° F (67° C), in pork at 158° F (70° C) and in beef at 167° F (75° C). The blush of convalescent meat is blush and is due to the acknowledgment amid nitrite and myoglobin. The blush can alter from ablaze blush to ablaze red and depends on the bulk of myoglobin a accurate meat cut contains and the bulk of nitrite added to the cure.
Adding nitrates to meat offers abounding benefits:
- Meat becomes pink
- Acquires a hardly altered flavor
- Slows bottomward oxidation
- Inhibits Cl. botulinum from growing
Sodium nitrite, frequently acclimated as cure #1, is the arch abettor for preventing advance of Cl.botulinum spores during smoker meat. It is additionally added to admit the blush blush to candy meats like ham and sausages. You wouldn't like to eat gray ham, would you? Well, after sodium nitrite a broiled leg of pork is aloof a broiled leg, already the sodium nitrite is added it becomes blush ham with its characteristic acidity that sodium nitrite additionally provides. Abacus sodium nitrite (cure #1) to canned meat will absolutely lower the attrition of bacterial spores to thermal processing, but as explained beforehand a hobbyist should still action foods according to the USDA guidelines.
Nitrate Assurance Concerns
There has been abundant affair over the burning of Nitrates by the accepted public. In the 1970's abundant analysis was done on the furnishings of nitrates on our health. Millions of dollars were spent, abounding advisers had spent continued hawkeye nights gluttonous acclaim and glory, but no affirmation was begin that back Nitrates are acclimated aural the accustomed banned they can affectation any crisis to our health. A analysis of all accurate abstract on nitrite by the Civic Analysis Board of the Civic Academy of Sciences indicates that nitrite does not anon abuse us in any way. All this allocution about the crisis of nitrite in our meats pales in allegory with the amounts of Nitrates that are begin in vegetables that we absorb every day. The Nitrates get to them from the fertilizers which are acclimated in agriculture. Don't accusation sausages for the Nitrates you consume, accusation the farmer. It is added alarming to one's bloom to eat vegetables on a approved base than a sausage. You don't charge to use nitrites, however, there are abounding cases back you appetite meat to angle out, you appetite it to be the appearance meat. The archetype is red blush of argot in claret sausage or red meat in a headcheese. If you appetite your canned meat be of red color, use sodium nitrite (cure #1), its that simple. Abating is an important allotment of sausage authoritative technology, so we will blow it actual briefly as this book is about canning meats. If you appetite to abstraction abating in added detail, apprehend "Home Assembly of Affection Meats and Sausages."
What is Curing?
In its simplest anatomy the chat "curing" agency "saving" or "preserving" and the analogue covers canning processes such as: drying, salting and smoking. Back activated to home fabricated meat products, the appellation "curing" usually agency "preserved with alkali and nitrite." Back this appellation is activated to articles fabricated commercially it will beggarly that meats are able with salt, nitrite, ascorbates, erythorbates and dozens added chemicals that are pumped into the meat. There are dry and wet methods (brine) of curing. Meat for sausages is usually diced into 1-2 inch pieces, alloyed with alkali and cure #1 (2.5 g=1/2 tsp of cure #1 per 1 kg of meat) and larboard for 72 hours. Beyond cuts of meat will account from injecting them with abating band-aid at 10% of band-aid per weight of the beginning meat.
Mild abating band-aid (21 salinometer degree):
3/4 cup of salt, 1 gallon of water, 2 tsp. of cure #1.
Inject meat or craven with 10% of abating band-aid in affiliation to the weight of the meat, eg. 100 ml alkali for 1 kg (2.2 lb) chicken. Asperse craven in actual alkali and cure brief in refrigerator. There may be affairs back there is no time to cure meat properly. In such cases, the abating process, abnormally the development of blush will account abundantly from cure accelerators, the simplest one actuality ascorbic acerbic which is vitamin C. Back added to cautiously arena or blurred articles (e.g., bologna meat), they can be canned about immediately, and a compatible blush will be attained. A vitamin C book may be burst and activated to meat. It is usually activated at 0.1%, e.g., 1000 mg vitamin C per 1 kg of meat. Injecting meat with abating band-aid will access its juiciness by abbreviating affable accident during precooking. It will additionally facilitate thermal processing as added meat will be subjected to alteration calefaction transfer. Lastly, sodium nitrite is the arch abettor that inhibits the advance of Cl.botulinum spores and that is why it is consistently added to meats that would be smoked. Depending how the smokehouse is designed, there could be a little air central or none at all creating favorable altitude for bacilli spores to grow.
Precooking meat prevents meat pieces from afraid together. It additionally provides bigger actualization and flavor. Precooking after-effects in admeasurement abridgement acceptance meat cuts to be arranged added tightly. Meats can be arranged anon into containers, arranged with aqueous or alloyed with vegetables, for archetype a stew. Arena beef can be alloyed with spices (chili con carne) or bond with spices and beans (chili con carne with beef). Some articles such as pates or bologna meat crave added alertness steps.