Jamón Iberico and Jamón Serrano are two acclaimed Spanish hams (jamón agency ham in Spanish).
Iberico ham (Jamón Iberico), additionally alleged “pata negra”, is a blazon of convalescent ham produced alone in Spain. It is at atomic 75% atramentous Iberian pig, additionally alleged the cerdo negro (black pig). According to Spain’s Denominación de Origen rules on aliment articles jamón ibérico may be fabricated from cross-bred pigs as continued as they are at atomic 75% ibérico.
The pigs are accustomed to roam in the affirmation and oak groves to augment artlessly on grass, herbs, acorns, and roots, until the slaughtering time approaches. At that point the diet may be carefully bound to acorns for the best affection jamón ibérico, or may be a mix of acorns and bartering augment for bottom qualities. Meat from those pigs exhibits a ample bulk of marbling which guarantees ham of the accomplished quality. Not surprisingly, Iberico hams are the best big-ticket hams in the world. Pigs are collapsed at the age 8-9 months, accepting the weight of 150-170 kg (330-374 lbs.). Alkali is added at 4-7% in affiliation to the weight of a ham.
Serrano Ham (Jamón Serrano) is fabricated from the “Landrace” brand of white pig and are not to be abashed with the abundant added big-ticket and absolutely altered Jamón ibérico. The accomplishment action charcoal agnate to Iberico Ham, the capital aberration lies in the blazon of pork used.
Manufacturing action for Spanish Hams
1. Salting. Acceptable assembly adjustment uses alone alkali after abacus nitrates, although generally antiseptic sea alkali is alloyed with accepted bedrock salt. Sea alkali contains abounding minerals and can actualize altered reactions with meat proteins and fats. The alkali is added at 4-7% in affiliation to the weight of a ham. Application beneath alkali may not anticipate the advance of accident and pathogenic bacilli and will lower the final affection of the ham. Such an bulk of alkali anon draws out some damp from meat beef and this lowers the baptize action of the meat. As a aftereffect a assurance hurdle is created and the meat becomes bacteriologically abiding in time. In adjustment to anticipate altitude for bacilli to grow, the salting action takes abode at 40° F (4° C), 85-95% humidity. A aphorism of deride calls for 2 canicule for anniversary 1 kg of meat, for archetype the 8 kg (17.6 lbs) ham will be absolute for 16 days. Afterwards the salting date hams are thoroughly brushed off to abolish balance salt.
2. Equalization. Equalization, sometimes alleged post-salting takes abode at 37-42° F (3-6° C), 85-95% clamminess and continues for about 40 days. Equalization is the time afterwards the balance cure has been removed from the product, at the end of the cure acquaintance aeon until the artefact is placed in the dehydration allowance and the dehydration aeon begins.
3. Drying/Ripening. This is the longest date and lasts 10-12 months.
During this date due to circuitous reactions amid enzymes, meat proteins and fats, the ham develops its appropriate acidity and aroma. With time the ham loses moisture, but the alkali charcoal central accretion its proportional content. As the ham becomes added abiding in time the temperatures are added which increases the acceleration of centralized reactions and decreases maturation time. The ripening continues in a few cycles: the temperature starts at 53-57° F (12-14° C), 60-80% humidity, and increases up to 75-93° (24-34° C), 70-90% humidity. The ripening takes about 5 months for Serrano Ham and 10 months for Iberico Ham. The aerial clamminess creates bigger altitude for cast to advance which generally happens. Afterwards ripening is completed, a attenuate band of meat or fat is cut off from the apparent of the ham with cast on it.
4. Storing. Again the hams are stored at about 53° F (12° C), 75% clamminess for up to a year. For the accomplished affection Iberico hams, the absolute action may booty up to 2 years.