Drying aliment is one of the oldest methods of aliment preservation. It may be acclimated alone,or in a aggregate with added canning methods, for archetype salting, smoker or fermenting.
The acumen aliment boodle is that it is invaded by bacteria. Bacilli like all added alive creatures charge aliment and water. Majority of bacilli advance in balmy conditions, from 60-140° F (15-60° C) in the so alleged “danger zone.” They are apathetic at low temperatures and alive at aerial ones, but they badly charge water. Not to drink, as they accept no mouth, but to deliquesce foods in water, which they can again blot through their skin.
If they are accustomed dry food, for archetype broiled peas or dry milk, they are not able to eat them, about back peas are blood-soaked in water, or clamminess levels access to such an admeasurement that there is affluence of damp in air, they will be able to blot food. Then, they will grow, the appropriate appellation is multiply, as they bisect in numbers of the aforementioned size. They defecate decay like any active organisms, and this decay becomelarger and beyond and the aliment starts to smell. We artlessly say that the aliment is spoiled.
If we bankrupt bacilli of water, they cannot grow, they cannot defecate the decay and the aliment will not spoil. This is absolutely what “drying” is; removing sufficiently ample bulk of moisture from food, so that bacilli will not be able to eat. In abstruse agreement the bulk of baptize that is accessible to microorganisms is authentic as baptize action (Aw). Some baptize is deeply apprenticed in aliment and bacilli cannot admission it, however, there is affluence of “free” water. Aw does not specify how abundant baptize is in food, but how abundant baptize is accessible to abutment the advance of microorganisms. Beneath assertive Aw levels, bacilli cannot grow. USDA guidelines state: "A potentially chancy aliment does not include... a aliment with a baptize action amount of 0.85 or less."
Water action is covered in added detail at:
It is obvious, that assertive time is bare until we ability the point back there is so little damp that bacilli cannot blot food. If dehydration gain slow, again they will abound in acceptable numbers to blemish food, afore abundant damp is removed to arrest their growth. We accept to ambush them, we accept to tip the calibration on our side, we accept to get ourselves the jump start. This is usually acquired by salting.
Drying is a apathetic action and applying alkali offers two benefits:
- An actual damp removal.
- Inhibiting the advance of accident bacteria.
We may add 1.5% alkali to a beginning or smoked sausage as both articles will be adapted afore serving. Such a artefact is not actuality preserved and salt is added for acidity and not to bottle the sausage. On the added duke we accept to add 3% alkali to commonly broiled bologna to apathetic bottomward the advance of accident bacilli until abundant damp is removed from the sausage. In this case, salt is added not to acidity the product, but to advice in dehydration process. Dehydration is the adjustment that will accomplish bologna safe and stable.
Salt draws damp from any aliment it gets in acquaintance with. Afore appearance of refrigeration, angle was preserved by abundant salting. Alkali removed water; the baptize was drained abroad and added alkali was applied. Again angle was arranged in board barrels and caravans delivered angle to landlocked areas. Although such angle had to be blood-soaked for a few canicule in baptize afore cooking, about the nutrients and acidity were preserved.
Vegetables back broiled in accessible air will account abundantly from actuality brindled with alkali on their surfaces. This anon draws damp out and shortens the process.
Drying aliment is afflicted by:
- Humidity - college humidity, slower drying
- Temperature - college temperature, faster drying
- Air breeze - faster air speed, faster abatement of moisture
Understanding dehydration is acute back authoritative apathetic fermented, algid smoked or air broiled articles as the technology of accomplishment these articles depends mainly on drying.
Drying and Smoker Food
Food can be broiled and smoked at the aforementioned time, for archetype dehydration hasty in a smokehouse, at 140° F (60° C). It charge be acclaimed that for authoritative air broiled (uncooked) sausages smoke temperature should accord to the temperature in a dehydration alcove and that will crave appliance of cold smoke. It should be acclaimed that smoker is not a canning method, it is an added assurance hurdle which back backed by dehydration or accretion acidity (pH drop) will accord absolutely to the assurance of the meat.
Drying action should be balanced. The calm state: circulation amount = dehydration rate. For archetype the sausages are dehydration from central out and the damp removed from the apparent should be replaced by the damp advancing from the central of the sausage.
Good blast is acute to the dehydration action as it removes the damp from thesurface of the aliment and from the dehydration chamber. If damp were not removed from the chamber, clamminess will increase, dehydration will apathetic and molds will appear.Ventilation is hardly a botheration back the aliment is broiled in accessible air or in a smokehouse area the abstract removes damp with smoke. In abate units such ashome dehydrator an central fan circulates and removes the damp burdened air.
More about drying.